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49 terms

Ch. 9: Lifespan development

Developmental psychology
The branch of psychology that studies how people change over the lifespan
A long, threadlike structure composed of DNA; a person's "genetic blueprint"
Deoxyribunucleic acid (DNA)
The chemical basis of heredity; carries all genetic instructions
The basic unit of heredity that directs the development of particular characteristics; can be recessive or dominant
The genetic makeup of an individual organism
Human genome
The scientific description of the complete set of DNA in the human organism, including gene locations
Prenatal stage of development
Stage of development before birth that is divided into three stages: germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods
Germinal period
The first two weeks of prenatal development
Embryonic period
The second period of prenatal development, extending from the third week through the eighth week
Harmful substances that can cause defects in an embryo or fetus
Fetal period
The third and longest period of prenatal development, extending from the ninth week until birth
Inborn predispositions to consistently behave and react in a certain way
Three categories of infant temperament
About two-thirds of infants fit into one of three broad temperamental patterns: easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up. The other one-third of infants are characterized as average because they do not fit neatly into one of these categories
Emotional bond that forms between an infant and his or her caregivers
Attachment theory
Theory supporting the notion that an infant's ability to thrive physically and psychologically depend sin part of the quality of attachment
Infant-directed speech
A type of speaking commonly used with infants that is characterized by very distinct pronunciation, a simplified vocabulary, and exaggerated intonation. Also called motherese
Comprehension vocabulary
The words that are understood by an infant or child
Production vocabulary
The words that an infant or child understands and can speak
Sensorimotor stage
In Piaget's theory, the first stage of cognitive development, during which an infant explores the environment and acquires knowledge through sensing and manipulating objects. Age range: birth age 2.
Object permanence
The understanding that an object continues to exist even when it can no longer be seen
Preoperational stage
In Piaget's theory, the second stage of cognitive development, characterized by increasing use of symbols and prelogical though processes. Age range: age 2 to age 7.
Symbolic thought
Ability to use words, images and symbols to represent the world
In Piaget's theory, the inability to take another person's perspective or point of view
Concrete operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the third stage of cognitive development, characterized by the ability to think logically about concrete objects and situations. Age range: age 7 to adolescence.
Formal operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the fourth stage of cognitive development, characterized by the ability to think logically about abstract principles or hypothetical situations. Age range: adolescence to adulthood.
Zone of proximal development
In Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development, the difference between what children can accomplish on their own and what they can accomplish with the help of others who are more competent
Information-processing model
The model that views cognitive development as a process that is continuous over the lifespan
The transitional stage between late childhood and the beginning of adulthood, during which sexual maturity is reached
The stage of adolescence in which an individual reaches sexual maturity and becomes physiologically capable of sexual reproduction
Primary sex characteristics
Sexual organs that are directly involved in reproduction, such as the uterus, ovaries, penis and testicles
Secondary sex characteristics
Sexual characteristics that develop during puberty and are not directly involved in reproduction but differentiate between the sexes, such as male facial hair and female breast development
Adolescent growth spurt
Period of accelerated growth during puberty, involving rapid increases in height and weight
Female's first menstrual period, which occurs during puberty
A person's definition or description of oneself including values, beliefs, and ideals that guide the individual's behavior
Psychosocial development
A theory proposed by Erik Erikson that there are eight stages of life and that each stage is associated with a particular psychosocial conflict hat can be resolved in a positive or negative direction
Identity versus role confusion
In Erikson's theory, the key psychosocial conflict facing adolescent in which the adolescent must integrate various dimensions of personality into a coherent whole
Intimacy versus isolation
In Erikson's theory, the key psychosocial conflict facing young adults in which they must establish lasting and meaningful relationships and develop a sense of connectedness and intimacy with others
Generativity versus stagnation
In Erikson's theory, the key psychosocial conflict facing middle-age adults in which they must develop the ability to express unselfish concern for the welfare of the next generation
Ego integrity versus despair
In Erikson's theory, the key psychosocial conflict facing older adults in which they experience a strong sense of self-acceptence and meaningfulness based on life accomplishments
The natural cessation of menstruation and end of reproductive capacity in women
Twenties to approximately age 65; establish career, form bonds of love and friends, and contribute to society
Late adulthood
Sixty-five and beyond; completion of the life cycle, hopefully with a sense of dignity and fulfillment
Activity theory of aging
The psychosocial theory that life satisfaction in late adulthood is highest when people maintain the level of activity they displayed earlier in life
Stages of dying
Theory by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross that states that dying consist of five distinct stages: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance
Authoritarian parenting style
Parenting style in which parents are demanding and unresponsive toward their children's needs or wishes
Permissive parenting style
Parenting style in which parents are extremely tolerant and undemanding; parents may be indulgent-permissive or indifferent-permissive
Authoritative parenting style
Parenting style in which parents set clear standards for their children, but are also responsive to their needs and wishes
Moral reasoning
Aspect of cognitive development that has to do with how an individual reasons about moral decisions
Levels of moral development
Theory proposed by Lawrence Kohlberg that moral reasoning can be categorized into three distinct levels: preconventional, conventional and postconventional