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an amendment to the Constitution, adopted in 1804, that specifies the separate election of the president and vice president by the electoral college
a written declaration that a president may make when signing a bill into law; usually, such statements point out sections of the law that the president deems unconstitutional
a collective term for the body of employees working for the government; generally civil service is understood to apply to all those who gain government employment through a merit system
the authority vested in the president to fill a government office or position; positions filled by presidential appointment include those in the executive branch and the federal judiciary, commissioned officers in the armed forces, and members of the independent regulatory commissions
release from the punishment or legal consequences of a crime; a pardon can be granted by the president before or after a conviction
Commander in Chief
the role of the president as supreme commander of the military forces of the United States and of the state National Guard units when they are called into federal service
War Powers Resolution
a law passed in 1973 spelling out the conditions under which the president can commit troops without congressional approval
Advice and Consent
terms in the Constitution describing the U.S. Senate's power to review and approve treaties and presidential appointments
the role of the president in recognizing foreign governments, making treaties, and effecting executive agreements
a formal agreement between the U.S. president and the leaders of other nations that does not require Senate approval
State of the Union Message
an annual message to Congress in which the president proposes a legislative program; the message is addressed not only to Congress but also to the American people and to the world
a veto exercised by the president after Congress has adjourned; if the president takes no action for ten days, the bill does not become law and is not returned to Congress for a possible override
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