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Biology Exam Study Guide
Terms in this set (90)
Where in the cell does glycolysis take place?
The entire process of aerobic cellular respiration produces how many ATP molecules?
What does aerobic cellular respiration requires that fermentation does not?
Pairs of chromosomes that carry the same genes are said to be what?
In which phase of the cell cycle does cell spend most of it existence?
The DNA in a cell is replicated during what?
Availability of water and carbon dioxide, temperature
What factors affect the rate of photosynthesis in plants?
Meiosis produces what type of sex cells
The expression of a trait across multiple generations is shown in a ________?
A diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family.
Binding to DNA in activating previously unused genes
How do you trigger additional growth during puberty?
True or false : death and disease existed before the fall of Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden
True or false : We can use biology to show love for others and to care for God's creation
True or false : A naturalistic worldview views of life as a series of natural processes with no designer or purpose
True or false :A particular type of biome tends to be restricted to a small portion of the earth
True or false : The forest in a tropical rain forest biome can be divided into layers of growth but are based on how much sunlight each received
True or false : Symbiosis is the phenomenon Of different animals living together and interacting with each other within a particular habitat
True or false : Eutrophication describes a process by which lakes and ponds rid themselves of excess nutrients
True or false : Unicellular organisms do not form colonies
An organism made up of one cell. Can make colonies
True or false : When the concentration of a solution outside of cell is lower than the concentration of the cytoplasm inside the cell the solution outside the cell is said to be hypotonic active
True or false : Active transport is to move particles from regions of low concentration to regions of high concentration
Passive Transport (Diffusion)
A process that requires no energy to move molecules down their concentration gradient(from high to low concentration)
Where do you humans get nitrogen from?
Number of individuals per unit area
An environmental factor that prevents a population from increasing
Species occupying an ecosystem at the end of secondary succession
Carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane
What are the greenhouses gases?
coined the term "cell"
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
What temporarily stores energy?
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
what's the molecule used by cells for energy storage?
_______________ use the information in RNA to assemble proteins
True or false : During photosynthesis the electrons that are needed for the electron transport chain are produced when light energy splits water molecules
Process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen; converts energy into usable form
True or false : In the absence of oxygen some organisms can use fermentation to obtain energy
True or false : In addition to alcohol, alcoholic fermentation also produces carbon dioxide
True or false : Prior to mitosis a chromosome consists of two chromatids attached by a centromere
True or false : If a punnet square shows that the offspring of a cross have 25% chance of inheriting a particular trait than one out of every four offspring of that cross will for sure express that trait
can differentiate into any cell type
Who was the one man who perfectly for filled God's intent for man's dominion over the earth
Enzymes help a chemical reaction proceed by ___________ the activation energy
The study of the interrelationships between organisms and their relation to their physical surroundings
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
The two main factors that influence climate are precipitation and ____________?
Biomes are to latitude as vertical zones are to _________
well-lit upper layer of the oceans
the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
The absorption by organisms of matter such as oxygen carbon and nitrogen in the return of that matter to the environment
Water, vapor carbon dioxide, and methane are ______________ ______ That can trap heat in the earths atmosphere
Ribosomes use information in ________ to assemble proteins
Heterotrophs or consumers
organisms that must consume other organisms to get organic compounds (different food)
The Development of specialized cells in embryos
Cells change to perform specific tasks during the process of _______ _____________________
Sex linked traits
Traits that are determined by genes found on either X or Y chromosomes
situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
Energy is released when ATP is converted to what?
When water reacts with ATP, ADP is formed and _________ is released
The process of a cell engulfing very large particles within vesicles formed from the cell membrane
The perspective that a person uses to view interpret the world
A simplified representation of reality that describes or explains some things in the world and a workable and useful way
Logical Procedure that helps answer a scientific question
pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom
True or false : And ion is an atom with more protons/electrons than protons /electrons
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
Building blocks of life; Made of three parts a base that has nitrogen in it a sugar and a phosphate group
RNA and DNA
What do nucleotides form?
Realm of habitable life on Earth
Large areas with fairly consistent environments
seasons, latitude, elevation, bodies of water
What four main things affect biomes?
Vertical layers within a biome form because the temperature and amount of light and rainfall can change with elevation; can be divided into layers based on sunlight
Light, temperature, dissolved oxygen
What affects biotic vertical zones in a body of water?
autotrophs (primary producers)
organisms that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food
anabolism vs catabolism
anabolism is the energy driven synthesis of complex molecules from smaller ones. catabolism is the energy releasing degradation of complex molecules into smaller ones
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
A cell that has only one representative of each chromosome pair.
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
Meiosis vs. Mitosis
- meiosis has 2 cell divisions, mitosis only one
- in meiosis homologous chromosomes pair up on cell's equator, in mitosis homologous chromosomes never pair up
- in anaphase 1 of meiosis sister chromatids are still paired, in anaphase in mitosis, sister chromatids are separated
- meiosis results in a haploid cell, mitosis results in a diploid
- meiosis has two cell divisions, mitosis only one
needed for the Electron transport chain
something aerobic requires that fermentation doesn't
what does a chromosome consist of?
an organism depends on another for food
Absorption by organisms of matter such as oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen
Concentration in city's populations
what reduces a society's ecological footprint?
some organisms switch to _____________ to produce ATP
Absorbs light energy.
Pigment that gives a plant its green color. Found in the chloroplast
•High food availability
•Greater birth then death rate
what can increase biodiversity?
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