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SPED 306 Exam #3
Terms in this set (51)
the contingent presentation of a stimulus that increases a behavior.
the contingent removal of an aversive that increases behavior.
is very predictable and the students will expect it, post reinforcement pause comes in effect when students are rewarded they than don't want to go back to work.
-the student is reinforced on completion of a specific number of correct responses.
allows students to perform scalloping of behavior, students perform the behavior right before they get reinforced and don't work the other time.
-the student is reinforced the first time he or she completes the target response following the elapse of a specific number of minutes or seconds.
-Ex: Dr. B class every 7 minutes
the target behavior is reinforced on the average of a specific number of correct responses.
the intervals are of different lengths, but their average length is consistent.
consequences that decreases behaviors
-level 3: removal of desirable stimuli
-level 4: presentation of an aversive stimuli (most intrusive)
level 3: removal of desirable stimuli
in a token reinforcement system, you remove the reinforcer because the behavior has stopped. giving a token and taking it away.
level 4: presentation of an aversive stimuli
-rapidly stops occurrence
-provides a clear distinction between acceptable and unacceptable behavior
-is a physical example for other students to see
+what might happen if they are acting that way.
-appropriate only when safety is jeopardized or long standing serious behavior problems are occurring.
A time-out procedure wherein the student is not removed from the instructional setting in which reinforcers are being dispensed. The teacher denies access to reinforcement and manipulates the environment to signal a period of time during which access is denied.
-ex: take favorite toy away, sit and watch, turn lights off, put heads on the table)
exclusionary time out
removing the student from the activity, denying access.
-another part of the room (time out chair, corner of the room that is faced away from the group)
seclusionary time out
-time out room
-student is removed from classroom itself
-total social isolation
- for physical agression behavior
when students see a specific stimulus you have a specific response
-ex: green light = go
differential reinforcement of successive approximations of a behavior. working and rewarding that student for getting closer and closer to a full task.
-'the letter T'
-when establishing simple discrimination with a student the goal is a student will differentiate something from something else.
-ex: differentiating letters in the alphabet
-classroom rules on the walls
-give students verbal directions, instructions, and rules (all verbally).
give students wait time before you give hints.
explicit show the student what you expect of them (demonstrate).
hand over hand
physically work through the task with them, one by one do it together.
start with no prompting or assistance but then add in assistance as the student needs the help.
most assistance to least assistance, until no assistance is needed.
physically moving with the student through the skill/task.
you fade out prompts for students because the students must learn to vernalize the tasks they are learning in class, by fading prompts student learns how to do task on their own.
slowly ending the use of physical guidance with a student to encourage the student independence of the skill.
allowing the student time to show you if they can perform the skill on their own or if they need assistance you can slowly give it to them.
start with the first step and work towards full task at the end.
start with the task and work backwards through the steps.
the final behavior that is expected to come at the end of the IEP goal.
the beginning behavior that is being changed and shaped through the intervention or shaping process.
-the student repertoire
reasons for fading prompts
-so the student can generalize the behavior
-student can gain independence
-list prerequisites needed for task
-create list of material needed for task
-create a detailed list of steps needed to complete a specific task
important of generalizing training
-students can learn skills in ALL settings, even out of school
-generalization does not occur naturally so must be taught
-help teach kids how to learn skills that are acceptable and expected in certain settings and environments.
+shift from environment and maintain appropriate behaviors.
procedures that make it difficult for students to determine when contingencies are in effect is likely to result in greater durability of behavior change.
train and hope
-unplanned generalization, this happens sometimes when the skill trained to the student is particularly useful to the student or where the skill becomes reinforced in itself.
-although there is hope that a behavior acquired or strengthened through formal contingency management programs may generalize...there is never certainty.
-generalization is promoted by applying the same techniques that successfully changed behavior in one setting to all settings the target behavior is desirable.
-similar to multiple baseline.
introduce to natural contingencies
-ideal applied behavior analysis programs seek to change behavior that receive reinforcement in students natural settings and environment.
-"good rule is to not make deliberate behavior change that will not meet natural communities of reinforcement"
train sufficient exemplers
-provide lots of examples, lessons, settings, and demonstrations of how to appropriately use the correct behavior that is being reinforced.
-teaching techniques based on principles of behavior have historically.
-having strict teaching strategies when teaching students with disabilities isn't always best, let the student have some control in the process.
use indiscriminable contingencies
-using intermittent reinforcement schedules can be used to maintain behaviors at a high rate and can be a step towards not needing the reinforcement at all.
-evidence shows that intermittent reinforcement schedules lead to increased maintenance of behavior change.
program common stimuli
-intra-subject behavioral similarity across different settings is probably a function, in part, of the amount of stimulus similarity which exists between such settings.
-it is possible to increase the probability of generalization by reinforcing generalization as a response class.
-if students receive reinforcers specifically for displaying behavior in settings other than the training setting, performing learned behaviors in a novel setting may become a generalized response class.
importance of self-management
-in order to fade prompts, and encourage independence in students they must be able to self-monitor themselves and have self-management strategies in place.
-the use of external change agents sacrifices consistency because teaches o others may 'miss' certain instances of the students behavior that the student can regulate.
-problems associated with communication between agents in different setting can also undermine the success of the program.
-the change agents themselves can become an environment cue for the performance or lack of performance of behavior.
-external agents are not always available in the environment where the target behavior is occurring or should occur.
data collection on one's own behavior, also referred to as self-observation and self-evaluation or self monitoring.
administering consequence to oneself, student may be taught to select reinforcers, determine criteria and delivery for the consequence to themselves.
administering a consequence to oneself, students may be taught to select punishments appropriate for behavior, determine criteria for delivery and deliver the consequence to themselves.
the process by which a student provides verbal prompts to themselves in order to direct or maintain a particular behavior.
this means that a behavior may have a change in the desired direction as a function of the self-recording process alone.
difference between self-monitoring and self-evaluation
-self evaluation is a form of self-moniroting.
-as a student monitors their behaviors as learn, they can also evaluate how they did at the end of the day with assistance of the teacher.
-students can decide if they did well and if the teacher disagrees with their work in self evaluating then they can discuss the difference and see what the students deserves for the day.
the factors that influence self-instruction
-actual implementation of the procedure during tasks performance, however found no difference between students who used self-instruction and the who had merely been taught one self-instruction strategy.
-the ability of the students to perform the response in question. no amount of self-instruction will enable a student to perform a task that is not in their repertoire.
-reinforcement for angering to self-instructions.
-making the focus on instruction specific.
From Jean Piaget's perspective, a child who alters her behavior to more effectively deal with a new situation is exhibiting?
What are Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development?
"cultural politics and education," the school plays a role in both reproducing and challenging the unequal relations of power T/F
Damon is preparing to deliver a speech on the interdependent developmental dynamic between humans and their environment. Who will Damon likely reference in his speech?
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