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148 terms

Greek Mythology

STUDY
PLAY
contributions made by the greeks
olympics, science & math, drama & poetry, medicine, mythology, paintings & sculptures, philosophy, classical literature, & law govt. & democracy
greeks created gods _______________
in their own image
values held dear by the greeks
beauty, marriage & infidelity, love & hate, peace & war, trust & betrayal, & innocence & lust
what is mythology
an attempt to provide answers to ?'s a/b the world
which primitive civilizations have their own mythologies
greeks, romans, aztecs, egyptians, indians, chinese, native americans, & vikings
what do many great mythologies share the 2 stories of
1) creation of man from dust & 2) flood that destroyed the earth
there are more than ___ flood stories & historic records in the world
270
chinese folklore
fuhi(father of chinese civilization) escaped great flood w/ wife, 3 sons, & 3 daughters. painting-fuhi's boat in water w/ dove carrying olive branch swimming toward it
lenni lenape indians in north america
time when powerful snake made all men evil. sent water to destroy everthing. man named monabozho (gfather of all men) saved by riding on the back of a great turtle
in the beginning there was ____
chaos-modern meaning confusion. comes from greek word that means abyss
who created the mtns & the seas
gaea(mother earth)
who did gaea marry
uranus(sky)
gaea & uranus' children
12 titans, 3 cyclopes, & 3 monsters
what did uranus do w/ his children
he decided to imprison them in the depths of the earth
why did gaea want to kill uranus
b/c she disapproved of him imprisoning their children
who was the one child that would help gaea kill uranus
cronus
how did cronus kill uranus
he crept into his room at night, killed him, & mutilated his body
how was aphrodite brought into the world
she arose from the foam in the sea where cronus had thrown uranus' body parts into the sea
aphrodite is the goddess of _____________________
love, beauty, & romance
cronus now became leader of the ______, even though he was the _______
titans; youngest
oceanus married _________
tethys. and they gave birth to the earth's rivers
who were hyperion & theia's children
helios-(the sun), selene-(the moon), and eos-(the dawn)
iapetus mated w/ the nymph _______ & they produced _____________________________
clymens; atlas, prometheus, epimetheus, and menocticus
cronus married ________, & they gave gave birth to the first 6 gods _____________________________
rhea; zeus, hades, poseidon, (female...)hera, demeter, & hestia
b/c cronus was fearful that one of his children would murder him, what did he do to each child as it was born
swallowed them
rhea sneaked away ____ in a ______ w/ his gmother, _____
zeus; cave; gaea
who did zeus marry
metis, a titan daughter(goddess of prudence)
what did metis advise zeus to do
to create allies to overthrow cronus. she gave cronus herb that she promised to make cronus "unconquerable" but it caused him to vomit up children & rock
zeus ________ & _______
banished cronus to the ends of the earth; set himself up as master of the universe
the titans rebelled against the gods all except
oreanus, epimetheus, & prometheus
prometheus' name means
"foresight" (he knew how the battle would end & he sided w/ winners)
how long did the battle last
10 yrs
zeus released ___________
the cyclopes & other monstrous children of uranus
how did the cyclopes reward him for releasing them
they gave zeus a thunderbolt used to create fire from heaven
after the titans were defeated what happd to them
zeus severly punished them by bounding most of them w/ chains & threw them into the depths of the earth
all except ______________.
atlas, whose job was to hold up the sky while standing at the edge of the earth
zeus=
master of the skies & earth
who taught men how to walk
epimetheus
poseidon=
god of the seas & oceans
hades=
lord of the underworld
what is the underworld
where the shades of the dead go for reward or punishment after death
hera......(sister of zeus)
became zeus' wife & patron goddess of family & marriage
demeter........(sister of zeus)
oversaw task of helping to grow crops
hestia.....(sister of zeus)
virgin goddess. worshipped by women who dedicated themselves to chastity
sons of hera & zeus
ares(god of war) & hephaestus (god of forge, but became blacksmith of the gods)
b4 zeus married hera, who did he marry
metis- produced athene(unusual birth)
she became the goddess of ...
wisdom
with leto (daughter of titan, coeus), zeus produced twins _________ & ______
apollo & artemis
apollo was the god of the....
sun
artemis was the goddess of the....
moon
with maia(daughter of atlas), they produced....
hermes "herald of the gods"
with dione, zeus produced
aphrodite
gaea created ______ & ________, b/c she __________
typhon & echidna(created to defeat zeus), b/c she was angry that zeus had confined the titans in tarturus
everybody fled from typhon & echidna by
disquising themselves as animals
zeus pinned typhon under
mt. etna ... making him a volcano
what did echidna do
she fled to a cave
who were echidnas children that zeus allowed to live
nemean lion, cerberus, ladon, chimera, sphinx, & hydra
who finally made peace w/ who
gaea made peace w/ zeus
where did the cyclopes build a palace for the gods
mt. olympus
who was the messenger of the gods
iris (rainbow) between earth & olympus
why did the gods reign for many years & why were they unable to die
b/c ichor flowed through their veins
gods never died.....why.......
b/c they live on in myths & in the constellations
pan?
the great earth god, the god of woods & fields. half man & half goat
pan often played his
"pipes" - set of tubes made of reeds bound together
was pan often seen?
noo but wheneva he played his music, ppl who were in the woods would panic!!! bahahahahaha.
nymphssssssss
beautiful young women who guarded different parts of nature
dryads
nymphs that lived in tha woods & dwelled inside trees
nereids
daughters of poseidon that lived in the sea
who does poseidon look like
tritan!!!!! from the little mermaid!!!!!!!!!!
the 9 muses....?!?!?!?!
-daughters of zeus & mnemosyne. - lived on heights of mounts parnassus, pindos, and helieon. - springs & streams were sacred to them. - palm & laurel. - goddesses of various arts.... mostly literature
terpsichore
choral dance & song
euterpe
lyric poetry
erato
love poetry
polyhymnia
sacred poetry
thalin
comic drama
calliope
epic poetry
melpomene
tragic drama
urania
astronomy
clio
history
poets in need of inspiration have called upon _________ for centuries
the 9 muses
who were the 3 goddesses that controlled the destiny of every mortal
the fates
3 fates
clotho- spun threads of person's youth. lachesis- wound them on spindle. atropos- eldest symbol of death who cut threads w/ shears
the gods who lived on mt. olympus had control over
earth & nature, but they had no decision of length of handiwork
gods could not interfere with whattttt
the wrk. of these 3 sistas
who was the greatest of the titans
prometheus!
what does epimetheus' name mean....?
"hindsight"
from now on pro. = prometheus
: ]
what did pro. make men out of to please zeus
clay
what power did epimetheus give to humans
powers to make them greater than the animals
pro. knew that humans needed ability to...
think! he taught them all the things that athene had taught him
pro. still believed that humans needed
fire
did pro. defy zeus
yes
where did pro. make fire
from the hearth on mt. olympus. caught spark in hollow fennel stalk & built bonfire for men
were humans amazed by fire
Yeah!! and thay drew close!
pro. would have to teach men to use fire how?
wisely....
what did pro. teach humans in addition
- how to build houses. - basics a/b medicine. - how to write. - how to figure arithmetic
why was zeus fearful
b/c pro. had strengthened the human race & he was scared humans would rebel against the gods
who did zeus send
twin giants. kratos ( power ) & bia ( force ) to see hephaestus to have him bound pro.
did pro. see punishment coming
yep.
pro. went on a long journey & left epimetheus wit a wat!
BOX
where was pro. place of punishment
caucasus mtns.
why were the caucasus mtns. terrible
wind, lighting, & snow!
did hephaestus like punishing pro.?
no no no...pro. was good and kind!
what happnd to pro, the young titan
he was chained to a rocky cliff AND zeus sent a vulture by day to devour pro liver and intestines. at night they grew back but the next day it happd all over again...........w0ww...........
how long was this punishment to meant to last
eternity
who was eventually to free pro
hercules
who did zeus order to make pandora
hephaestus
who did hephaestus use as a model to make pandora
aphrodite
who dressed pandora
the other gods
what did the 4 seasons do to pandora
combed her hair & breathed life into her
zeus was preparing a
jar
what all went inside the jar
misery! sickness! death! hardwork! anger! jealousy! madness! hunger! old age! and hope was tucked away at the bottom
who did zeus call for to bring the woman hephaestus had made
hermes
pandora was beautiful but she couldn't.......?
speak.
who gave pandora a voice
hermes
who named pandora
hermes
what gift did zeus give pandora
curiousity
what were zeus' next orders for hephaestus
to take pandora to epimetheus & tell him that she was a peace offering & she was to be epimetheus wife. jar as dowry
who had warned who not to take gifts from the gods
pro.; epi
was epimetheus known for his intelligence
no...
did epimetheus marry pandora
yeah
what did epimetheus do with the jar
hid it from her in a cup board
did they live in marital bliss
yeah
what happened when pandora opened the jar
scream & smell & then a wind rushed out & evil came into the world
what item in the jar was buried at the bottom
hope
what's another myth for when after pan opens the box
zeus wiped out mankind w/ flood saving only deucalion & pyrrha to repopulate the earth
what character in the bible does pandora resemble
eve
what biblical figures do deucalion & pyrrha resemble
noah & wife
2 parts that make up hades
erebus & tartarus
erebus
place of arrival
tartarus
deeper region of no escape
who was queen of the underworld
persephone
who was king of the underworld
hades
who also lived there
sleep & death
what monstrous figures lived near the entrance of hades
the harpies, the gorgons, and the centaurs
who were the gorgons
3 sisters- euryale, stethro, & medusa
who were the centaurs
half man and half horse
what 5 rivers separated hades from the world above
acheron, cocytus, phlegethon, styxm and lethe
shades
(buried souls)
when you first arrived at the underworld you.........
crossed the river styx to hades
who could not cross
unburied souls
how did the greeks bury their dead
w/ coins in mouths to pay charon (ferryman on river) for passage to styx
when across the river where did they go
to lethe to drink
who was the guardian of hades
cerberus- a 3 headed dog w/ tail of dragon
who were the shades judged by
a tribunal led by hades
those who committed crimes went to
tartarus
the others went to
the elysian fields
who was in tartarus
titans, tantalus, sisyphus, exion, danards, and tityus