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APES Ch 18: Conserving Biodiversity Ash
Terms in this set (57)
occurs when the last member of a species dies
The last member of a species in a region dies
The last member of a species dies
When individuals with similar genomes (typically relatives) breed with each other and produce offspring with an impaired ability to survive and reproduce.
When genetic diversity is low...
the probability of the occurrence of harmful traits increaces
Genetic diversity can be a....
Toolbox for survival: finding food, being food, resisting disease, etc.
When genetic diversity is high...
there is a large range of phenotypes, and the species is better able to survive environmental change.
species at serious risk of extinction
Agricultural green revolution
encouraged farming techniques to maximize production, often at the cost of crop diversity
international union for conservation of nature
IUCN red list
a list of threatened species maintained by the IUCN
species with no reliable data to asses their status
species that were known to exist as recently as 1500, but no longer exist today.
Species with a high risk of future extinction,
according to the IUCN
Species likely to become threatened in the future
Species that are widespread and abundant
challenges in evaluating biodiversity:
data deficiency, time and $, the discovery of new species
the alteration of a habitat, affecting its organisms. greatest cause of decline for most species, especially specialized species, caused by human development.
species that live outside their historic range
aka alien species
species that live in their historical range, where they have lived for hundreds of millions of years.
an alien species that spreads rapidly across areas, without natural predators/enemies in place, damaging the ecosystem.
when individuals are removed faster than the population can replace them
Plant and animal trade....
represents a threat to species
one of the earliest laws to control the trade of wildlife. Made in 1900 to control the transport of illegal wildlife (plants and animals) across state boarders
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)
international agreement developed in 1973 to control the trade of endangered species. Today, has 175 countries involved.
Single species approach to conserving biodiversity
focuses conservation efforts on one species at a time, encouraging a population rebound.
Marine mammal protection act
1972 act passed in response to decline in populations of marine mammals, prohibiting the killing of all marine mammals in the US, and the import or export of any marine mammal body parts
Endangered species act
1973 act implementing international CITES agreement. Authorizes US department of fish and wildlife to determine which species can be listed as threatened or endangered and prohibits the harming of such species. Also authorizes government to purchase habitat critical to the survival of a species
Convention on Biological Diversity
an international treaty to help protect biodiversity, has
2. sustainably use, and
3. equitably share the benefits of biodiversity.
___ of all plant species are threatened with extinction
on average, species at risk of extinction have....
moved closer to extinction
natural habitats are becoming
smaller and more fragmented
the genetic diversity of crops and livestock is
there is a ______________ of ecosystem function
the causes of biodiversity loss have
either stayed the same, or increased in intensity
The ecosystem approach to conserving biodiversity
recognizes the benefit of preserving particular regions of the world, such as biodiversity hotspots
factors taken into consideration when protecting ecosystems to preserve biodiversity:
size and shape of area, connectedness, sustainable habitat use for human needs
thoughts taken into account when considering size and shape of protected areas
-theory of island biogeography (bigger=better)
occurs when two different communities come togeather, typically forming an abrupt transition
protected areas consisting of zones that vary in the amount of permissible human impact
Value independent of any benefit to humans
worth as an instrument or a tool that can be used to accomplish a goal.
A good that humans can use directly.
Habitat that occurs where two different communities come together, typically forming an abrupt transition, such as where a grassy field meets a forest.
Protected area consisting of zones that vary in the amount of permissible human impact.
Explain the global decline in the genetic diversity of wild species
Declines in the abundance o individuals in a population can lead to reduction sin genetic diversity that cause inbreeding depression.
Inbreeding depression can cause offspring to inherit tow copies of a harmful mutation and experience reduced survival and reproduction
Discuss the global decline in the genetic diversity of domesticated species
Humans have bred a wide variety of domestic plants and animals, but in recent decades farmers have focused on the most productive varieties and many of the other varieties have disappeared over time. Such reductions in genetic diversity limit the options available to respond to new diseases or changing environmental conditions.
Identity the patterns of global decline in species diversity.
Of the estimated 10 Million species on earth, only about 50,000 have been assessed to determine whether their populations are increasing, stable, or declining. In examining those groups with the most complete data, scientists have found that every group has a substantial percentage of species that are threatened or near threatened.
Explain the values of ecosystems and the global declines in ecosystem function.
Ecosystems can have intrinsic values which are independent of any benefit to humans, or they can have instrumental values, which provide a benefit to humans and can be assigned a monetary value. Instrumental values include provisions, regulating services, support systems, resilience, and cultural services. Recent assessments of ecosystem function have found that more than half of those assessed are either declining or used at a rate that cannot be sustained.
Discuss how habitat loss can lead to declines in species diversity.
The loss of habitat means that fewer individuals can be sustained in the habitat that remains. Smaller populations can then suffer from inbreeding depression. A reduction in habitat can also prevent the normal migration of species too important seasonal habitats and cause increased interaction with other species that have negative effects.
Explain how the movement of exotic species affects biodiversity.
Exotic species are those that are moved to new parts of the world where they are not native. Some of these species spread rapidly in their new locations and cause the demise of native species either as competitors, predators, herbivores, or pathogens.
Describe how over harvesting causes declines in populations and species
over-harvesting plants and animals at rates that exceed the production of new individuals can cause population declines and even extinctions. Many of these extinctions have occurred due to unregulated harvesting in the past. However, in most parts of the world governments have imposed harvest regulations to ensure that harvest occur in a sustainable manner.
Understand how pollution reduces populations and biodiversity.
Some pollutants can have direct lethal effects on species. Many other pollutants, however, can have sublethal effects that prevent or inhibits reproduction or alter ecosystems in ways that indirectly harms species.
Identify how climate change affects species diversity.
Climate change has the potential to alter the distribution of environmental condition around the world. When conditions change and species are unable to move to more hospitable conditions, sciences predict that these species will either decline in abundance or go extinct.
Identify legislation that focusses on protecting single species
The primary pieces of legislation in the US to protect species are the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act. Internationally, nations created the convention on Biological Diversity in order to conserved biodiversity, to use biodiversity sustainably, and to share equitably the benefits that mere from the commercial use of biodiversity.
Discuss conservation efforts that focus on protecting entire ecosystems.
There has been a continual increase in the amount of aquatic and terrestrial habitats that have been protected around the world. When preserving such habitats, scientists consider the size, shape, an connectedness of these habitat as well as the presence of edge habitats. They have also incorporated the need to balance human use and habitat protection by designing biosphere reserves.
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