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repetition of initial consonant sounds


a reference to a well known person, place, event, literary work, work of art that the poet expects the reader to recognize


the implied or suggested meaning of a word; emotional overtones of the word; what is suggests to the reader


two consecutive rhyming lines


the literal definition of a word

Figure of Speech/ Figurative Language

a word or phrase that identifies or describes something in a way that is not literally true, but may be meaningful in a deeper sense

Figure of Speech

Metaphor, simile, personification


gross exaggeration for effect

( situational) irony

an unexpected twist; the contrast between what is expected to happen and what actually occurs


a direct comparison


the use of words whose sounds imitate natural sounds


giving an object or an animal human qualities or characteristics

Rhyme Scheme

The pattern of rhymes at the ends of lines in a poem


a form of verbal irony; saying something and meaning the exact opposite, with the intent to be witty or insulting


a comparison using " like" or " as"


the narrator, point of view, or persona through whom the poet is speaking. The speaker of the poem should not be confused with the poet. For example, an older poet might choose to write from the point of view of a teenage girl


lines grouped together to form a division of a poem, separated from other lines by a space


an object, person, place, event that stands for something more than itself; something concrete that stands for an abstract concept


the writer's attitude toward the subject he or she is writing about or speakers attitude toward the subject he or she is talking about


is a division or type of literature. Literature is a commonly divided into three major genres: drama, poetry and prose. Each major genre is in turn divided into smaller genres. For example, poetry is divided into narrative poetry, dramatic poetry and lyric poetry

Narrative Poetry

is poetry that tells a story. Narrative poems present dramatic events in a vivid way, using some of the same elements as short stories-- for example, plot, characters, and dialogue. narrative poems have a narrator

Dramatic Poetry

is poetry that involves the techniques of drama. One or more characters speak to other characters who may or may not be present in the poem.

Dramatic Monologue

is a poem in which one person addresses a listener or listeners who do not speak. The speaker reveals his or her character by commenting on a crucial problem or conflict in his or her life

Lyric Poem

is highly musical verse that expresses the emotions, attitudes, and observations of a single speaker. Usually short and musical, lyric poems are called lyrics because in ancient times they were sung to the accompaniment of a lyre, a stringed instrument


is a song like poem that tells a story, often one dealing with adventure or romance.

Fold Ballads

the earliest known ballad were meant to be sung and thus had regular rhythm and rhymes. Like folk tales, these early ballads were composed anonymously and then passed on orally from generation to generation

Literary Ballad

is one written by a poet in conscious imitation of a folk ballad


ballad stanza is written in a four line stanza with a particular rhythm and rhyme scheme


is word choice. To discuss a writer's diction is to consider the vocabulary she/he has used, the appropriateness of the words, and the vividness of the language


is a word or phrase that appeals to one or more of the senses ( sight, hearing, taste, touch, smell, movement). Poets use images to recreate sensory experiences in words


is the collective term for images

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