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understanding one's own psychological processes


very intensive, extensive and expensive psychodynamic therapy

psychodynamic psychotherapy

more conversational than psychoanalysis but the goal is still exploration of unconscious proceses

Free Association

patient is encouraged to say whatever comes to mind to reveal associational networks and unconscious processes involved in symptom formation


therapist interprets the thoughts and feelings of the patient in order to reveal hidden conflicts and motivations

analysis of transference

patients bring into therapy their past troubled relationships, which are transferred to the therapist

systematic desensitization

the client is encouraged to confront a feared stimulus mentally while in a relaxed state


clients are exposed to the actual stimulus that they fear in real life


the client confronts the phobic stimulus all at once (no hierarchy)

graded exposure

the client is gradually exposed to the phobic stimulus (hierarchy)

virtual reality exposure

expose the client to virtual images of the feared stimulus instead of the actual stimulus

response prevention

all exposure techniques prevent the client from producing responses that allow avoidance of the feared stimulus

selective reinforcement

therapist delivers reinforcement contingent on the occurrence of a target behavior in order to increase the probability of that behavior

selective punishment

therapist punishes a certain target event in order to decrease the probability of that behavior


therapist removes a reinforcer in order to extinguish a target behavior

participatory modeling

therapist models the desired behavior and gradually induces the patient to participate in it

skills training

teach the behaviors necessary to accomplish relevant goals, often involving interpersonal competence

Ellis' Rational-Emotive Therapy

clients can rid themselves of the most psychological problems by minimizing their irrational thinking & maximizing rational thinking

Beck's Cognitive Therapy

therapist works on changing the client's cognitive distortions

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

alters the maladaptive thoughts and behaviors of a client through restructuring of maladaptive belief schemas and re-training behavior

empty-chair technique (Gestalt)

therapist places an empty chair next to the client and asks him to imagine that the object is of his emotion in sitting in the chair

group therapy

multiple people work together toward mutual therapeutic goals

Carl Rogers

believed that humans are good and that our basic nature is to grow and mature

couple's therapy

focus is on the marital unit

structural family therapy

focuses on the organization of the family system and uses active interventions to disrupt dysfunctional patterns

psychotherapy integration

use of theory or technique from multiple therapeutic perspectives

eclectic psychotherapy

clinicians combine technique from different approaches, often to fit a particular case


statistical technique that allows researchers to combine findings from various studies & make comparisons btwn the effects of treatment and no treatment

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