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unit 7 chem
Terms in this set (89)
atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to acquire eight valence electrons
A chemical bond is
the force that holds two atoms together.
Chemical bonds form by what? nucleus of one atom and what? electrons of another atom.
the attraction between the positive
Atom's try to form the octet by what?
gaining or losing valence electrons.
A positively charged ion is called a
Metals tend to what?
lose electrons and form positive charges.
Transition metals commonly form
2+ or 3+ ions (still pos tho bc METALS) can form greater than 3+ ions.
cation has what radius than its original element
ex. sodium has 3 rings and on the last one it has only one electron. It loses that electron and so sodium only has 2 rings making it SMALLER
This figure illustrates what?
how sodium loses one valence electron to become a sodium cation.
An anion is
a negatively charged ion.
Anion has what radius than its original element
ex. if you add an electron to fluorines outer ring this adds electron repulsion to all electrons, stretching the ring outttt (bc more power to repel against each other ???)
Nonmetals (right side of p-table) tend to ??
gain electrons and form negative ions.
The figure shown here illustrates what???
chlorine gaining an electron to become a chlorine ion.
Oxygen gains two electrons to form what kind of ion?
a chemical combination of two or more different elements
Ionic bonding occurs between what? The result is an what?
two oppositely charged atoms.
Binary ionic compounds (which what?) areee
contain only two different elements
a metallic cation and a nonmetallic anion. (ex: NaCl)
Positive and negative ions exist in a what? determined by what?
the number of electrons transferred from the metal atom to the non-metal atom.
an ionic crystal.
The repeating pattern of particle packing in an ionic compound
The strong attractions among the positive and negative ions result in what?
the formation of the crystal lattice.
A crystal lattice is what? and is responsible for what?
the three-dimensional geometric arrangement of particles
the structure of many minerals
In a solid, ions are ?? and electrons cannot ???—solid ions are what?
locked into position
poor conductors of electricity.
Liquid ions or ions in aqueous solution have what?? so they what??
electrons that are free to move,
conduct electricity easily.
An ion in aqueous solution that conducts electricity
Why are solid ionic compounds poor conductors of electricity?
they have electrons that cannot flow freely
What is the electrostatic charge holding two ions together?
contain bonds that occur b/w oppositely charged atoms
contains only two different elements
-1 charge, negative, anion
+1 charge, positive, cation
charged particles are unstable. if you have charge your unstable
if youre always positive or negative, then
youres sick, not natural. normal is NEUTRALLLL
extreme positivity, joker-insaneee
extreme negativity, all negative and depressing, ppl, world, family SUCKSSSSSS
ionic compounds form what??
solid crystal lattice structure
crystal lattice structure
patterned, organized look. not random, pretty neat, design oriented
When writing names and formulas for ionic compounds,
the cation appears first followed by the anion.
Chemists around the world need to communicate with one another, so ???
a standardized system of naming compounds was developed.
A formula unit
represents the simplest ratio of the ions involved.
Monatomic ions are ?
one-atom ions. (periodic table)
H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr
Group 1 Charge
Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra
Group 2 Charge
N, P, As
Group 15 Charge
O, S, Se, Te
Group 16 Charge
F, Cl, Br, I
Group 17 Charge
Some Elements have what??
multiple oxidation states (multiple charges)
The transition metals (d-block) tend to have what??
multiple oxidation states
The symbol for the cation is always written when followed by what
first, followed by the symbol of the anion.
Subscripts represent what?
the number of ions of each element in an ionic compound. true or false equation
The total charge must equal what?
zero in an ionic compound
Example of Chemical Formula:
1 Magnesium ion :
2 Chlorine ions
Mg has a charge of what Chlroine has a charge of what?. (from periodic table)FORMULAS
+2. -1, how do you figure this out???
Polyatomic ions are
ions made up of more than one atom.
metal + nonmetal
positive + negative
donates e- + accepts e-
cation + anion
left + right
charge on ion, whats the charge
pseudo-noble gas configuration
calcium loses two=argon, but isnt argon bc protons still different
Since polyatomic ions exist as a unit, what?? If more than one polyatomic ion is needed, do what??
never change subscripts of the atoms within the ion.
place parentheses around the ion and write the appropriate subscript outside the parentheses.
get the names of polyatomic names from where?
list on back of periodic table
An oxyanion is a
polyatomic ion composed of an element (usually a non-metal), bonded to one or more oxygen atoms.
the system (or rules) of naming chemicals
Rules for Naming Ionic Compounds
-Name the cation followed by the anion
-For monatomic cations use the element name
-For monatomic anions, use the root element name and the suffix -ide.
If it's a transition metal,
write the charge in ROMAN NUMERALS in parentheses
If it's polyatomic, do what?
copy the name, AS IS, from the ION SHEET! (Back of Periodic Table)
Naming Iconic Compounds
chart on powerpoint!!
a one-atom is called a(n)...
the charge of such an ion is equal to the atom's...
...which is the number of...transferred to or from the atom to form the ion.
In ionic compounds, the sum of the charges of all the ions equals...
Ions made up of more than one atom are called...
if such an atom is negatively charged and includes one or more oxygen atoms, it is called a(n)...
If two such ions can be formed that contain different numbers of oxygen atoms, the name for the ion with more oxygen atoms ends with the suffix
the name for the ion with fewer oxygen atoms ends with the suffix
in the chemical formula for any ionic compound, the chemical symbol for the ....
cation is written first,
followed by the chemical symbol for the...
A(n)...is a small number used to represent the number of ions of a given element in a chemical formula.
Such numbers are written to the ___ of the symbol for the element
If no number appears, the assumption is that the number equals
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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