86 terms

World Civ Terms

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Monothesim
The belief in one God.
Polotheism
The belief in multiple Gods.
Abraham
Abram is a prophet of Judaism. Who was instructed by God to travel to the Holy Land and in return God would give him children, who will populate the Holy Land.
Moses
Moses is a prophet of Judaism. He was told by God to lead the Israelites out of Egypt to escape slavery at the hands of the pharaoh of Egypt. So Moses escapes Egypt by parting the sea with the power of God and then closing it on the Pharoh's army.
Covenant
An agreement between God and a mortal: You do something for God, he does something for you. Example: Abraham
Jesus
The son of God and the prophet of Christianity. He died for our sins.
10 Commandments
The code of ethics that Christians follow
Torah
The agreed upon history of Judaism
Tanakh
Hebrew Bible
Bible
The holy book of Christianity
Isaac
Son of Abraham and Sarah. A profit of Judaism.
Ishmael
Son of Abraham and Hagar. A profit of Judaism.
fifial piety
Respect of ones family
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddhism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also known as Buddha
Four Noble Truths
1) All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow.
2) The cause of suffering is no virtue or negative deeds and mindsets such as hated and desire.
3) The only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirtue
4) The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold Path
Eightfold Path
In Buddhism, the basic rules of behavior and belief leading to an end of suffering.
1) Wisdom
2) Conduct
3) Meditation
Four Sights
old man, sick man, dead man, ascetic
Caste System
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
Dharma
a person's religious and moral duties
Atman
the individual soul
Brahman
The term for The Universal Soul in Hinduism.
"Four Manys"
Many gods, many lives, many paths, many texts
Trimurti
Brahma (creator), Vishnu (preserver), Shiva (destroyer)
Brahma
A Hindu god considered the creator of the world.
Vishnu
A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world
Shiva
A Hindu god considered the destroyer of the world.
Arjuna
The warrior prince in the Bhagavad-Gita to whom Krishna explains the nature of being and of God and how humans can come to know God
Krishna
Avatar of Vishnu and friend of Arjuna in the Bhagavad-Gita
Bhagavad Gita
The most important work of Indian sacred literature, a dialogue between the great warrior Arjuna and the god Krishna on duty and the fate of the spirit.
Brahmin
the highest of the four classes of the caste system, traditionally made up of priests
Kshatriyas
The warrior and aristocrat varna of the caste system.
Vaisyas
merchants
Sudras
Caste that made up most of the Indian population; most were peasants and manual laborers; they had limited rights in society
Untouchables
LOWEST LEVEL OF INDIAN SOCIETY; not considered a real part of the caste system; often given degrading jobs; their life was extremely difficult
Karma
Part of Hinduism: the Idea of if you do something bad/good something bad/good will happen to you in your next life. This gave people an incentive to be a good person and benefit the community. This concept also connects to dharma and is significant in the t, e, of Hinduism.
Samsara
the cycle of life and rebirth in Hinduism
Bhakti
devotion to a deity
Karma Yoga
The spiritual discipline of selfless action
Jnana
The spiritual discipline of knowledge and insight
Maya
illusion of life
Moksha
The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths.
Nirvana
state of enlightenment
Marga
The path to enlightenment
yoga
a system of exercises practiced as part of the Hindu discipline to promote control of the body and mind
Muhammad
Islamic prophet; founder of religion of Islam.
Kaaba
The most sacred temple of Islam, located at Mecca
Mecca
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
Quran
The holy book of Islam
Ramadan
the ninth month of the Muslim year, during which strict fasting is observed from sunrise to sunset.
Shahadah
Declaration of faith
Salat
Prayer 5 times a day
Zakat
Tax for charity; obligatory for all Muslims
Sawm
fasting
Hajj
Pilgrimage to Mecca
Abbasids
Dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from A.D. 750 to 1258. Under which many improvements to the empire took place.
House of Wisdom
Combination library, academy, and translation center in Baghdad established in the 800s.
Indian Ocean Trade
connected to Europe, Africa, and China.; worlds richest maritime trading network and an area of rapid Muslim expansion.
Ghana
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast. gold and salt trade.
Mali
The kingdom in West Africa that followed the Kingdom of Ghana; its wealth is also based on trans-Saharan trade; this kingdom encouraged the spread of Islam.
Silent Trade
a form of barter in which no verbal communication takes place
Mansa Musa
Emperor of the kingdom of Mali in Africa. He made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca and established trade routes to the Middle East.
Timbuktu
Mali trading city that became a center of wealth and learning
Silk Road
Connected China, India, and the Middle East. Traded goods and helped to spread culture.
Middle Kingdom (China)
Term that ancient China used to refer to themselves. The believed they were the center of the Earth, or the Middle Kingdom.
Crusades
A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.
Pope Urban II
Leader of the Roman Catholic Church who asked European Christians to take up arms against Muslims, starting the Crusades
Saladin
(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem
Mehmed II
Ottoman sultan called the "Conqueror"; captured Constantinople and destroyed Byzantine empire.
Suleiman
Great Ottoman leader, expanded land area of Ottomans, and restructured system of law.
Janissary
A member of an elite force of soldiers in the Ottoman Empire.
People of the Pen
Ottoman government officials (ambassadors, provincial governors, etc)
People of the Sword
The people who worked in the army of the Ottomans
Constantinople
A large and wealthy city that was the imperial capital of the Byzantine empire and later the Ottoman empire, now known as Istanbul
Vizier
a high government official in ancient Egypt or in Muslim countries
Akbar
The most famous Muslim ruler of India during the period of Mughal rule. Famous for his religious tolerance, his investment in rich cultural feats, and the creation of a centralized governmental administration, which was not typical of ancient and post-classical India.
Shah Jahan
Mogul emperor of India during whose reign the finest monuments of Mogul architecture were built (including the Taj Mahal at Agra) (1592-1666)
Aurangzeb
Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death.
Qing
Manchu dynasty that seized control of China in mid-17th century after decline of Ming; forced submission of nomadic peoples far to the west and compelled tribute from Vietnam and Burma to the south.
Qianlong
a ruler of the Manchu dynasty who helped to create a prosperous, powerful, and culturally rich empire. He kept the empire away from the rest of the world. Only letting traders stay on one small island.
Macartney
He was a British statesman, colonial administrator, and diplomat.
He led a mission in 1793 to the court of the Qianlong emperor
King George III sent Macartney to convince the Chinese emperor to open northern port cities to British traders
tribute system
Chinese method of dealing with foreign lands and peoples that assumed the subordination of all non-Chinese authorities and required the payment of tribute—produce of value from their countries—to the Chinese emperor (although the Chinese gifts given in return were often much more valuable).
Transatlantic Slave Trade
The brutal system of trading African Slaves from Africa to the Americas. It changed the economy, politics, and environment. It affected Africa, Europe, and America. It implies that slaves were used for cash crops and created a whole new economy.
Triangle Trade
a trade route that exchanged goods between the West Indies, the American colonies, and West Africa
Chattel Slavery
Absolute legal ownership of another person, including the right to buy or sell that person.
Middle Passage
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
Olaudah Equiano
An antislavery activist who wrote a famous account of his enslavement.