World Civ Terms
Terms in this set (86)
The belief in one God.
The belief in multiple Gods.
Abram is a prophet of Judaism. Who was instructed by God to travel to the Holy Land and in return God would give him children, who will populate the Holy Land.
Moses is a prophet of Judaism. He was told by God to lead the Israelites out of Egypt to escape slavery at the hands of the pharaoh of Egypt. So Moses escapes Egypt by parting the sea with the power of God and then closing it on the Pharoh's army.
An agreement between God and a mortal: You do something for God, he does something for you. Example: Abraham
The son of God and the prophet of Christianity. He died for our sins.
The code of ethics that Christians follow
The agreed upon history of Judaism
The holy book of Christianity
Son of Abraham and Sarah. A profit of Judaism.
Son of Abraham and Hagar. A profit of Judaism.
Respect of ones family
founder of Buddhism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also known as Buddha
Four Noble Truths
1) All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow.
2) The cause of suffering is no virtue or negative deeds and mindsets such as hated and desire.
3) The only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirtue
4) The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold Path
In Buddhism, the basic rules of behavior and belief leading to an end of suffering.
old man, sick man, dead man, ascetic
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
a person's religious and moral duties
the individual soul
The term for The Universal Soul in Hinduism.
Many gods, many lives, many paths, many texts
Brahma (creator), Vishnu (preserver), Shiva (destroyer)
A Hindu god considered the creator of the world.
A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world
A Hindu god considered the destroyer of the world.
The warrior prince in the Bhagavad-Gita to whom Krishna explains the nature of being and of God and how humans can come to know God
Avatar of Vishnu and friend of Arjuna in the Bhagavad-Gita
The most important work of Indian sacred literature, a dialogue between the great warrior Arjuna and the god Krishna on duty and the fate of the spirit.
the highest of the four classes of the caste system, traditionally made up of priests
The warrior and aristocrat varna of the caste system.
Caste that made up most of the Indian population; most were peasants and manual laborers; they had limited rights in society
LOWEST LEVEL OF INDIAN SOCIETY; not considered a real part of the caste system; often given degrading jobs; their life was extremely difficult
Part of Hinduism: the Idea of if you do something bad/good something bad/good will happen to you in your next life. This gave people an incentive to be a good person and benefit the community. This concept also connects to dharma and is significant in the t, e, of Hinduism.
the cycle of life and rebirth in Hinduism
devotion to a deity
The spiritual discipline of selfless action
The spiritual discipline of knowledge and insight
illusion of life
The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths.
state of enlightenment
The path to enlightenment
a system of exercises practiced as part of the Hindu discipline to promote control of the body and mind
Islamic prophet; founder of religion of Islam.
The most sacred temple of Islam, located at Mecca
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
The holy book of Islam
the ninth month of the Muslim year, during which strict fasting is observed from sunrise to sunset.
Declaration of faith
Prayer 5 times a day
Tax for charity; obligatory for all Muslims
Pilgrimage to Mecca
Dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from A.D. 750 to 1258. Under which many improvements to the empire took place.
House of Wisdom
Combination library, academy, and translation center in Baghdad established in the 800s.
Indian Ocean Trade
connected to Europe, Africa, and China.; worlds richest maritime trading network and an area of rapid Muslim expansion.
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast. gold and salt trade.
The kingdom in West Africa that followed the Kingdom of Ghana; its wealth is also based on trans-Saharan trade; this kingdom encouraged the spread of Islam.
a form of barter in which no verbal communication takes place
Emperor of the kingdom of Mali in Africa. He made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca and established trade routes to the Middle East.
Mali trading city that became a center of wealth and learning
Connected China, India, and the Middle East. Traded goods and helped to spread culture.
Middle Kingdom (China)
Term that ancient China used to refer to themselves. The believed they were the center of the Earth, or the Middle Kingdom.
A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.
Pope Urban II
Leader of the Roman Catholic Church who asked European Christians to take up arms against Muslims, starting the Crusades
(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem
Ottoman sultan called the "Conqueror"; captured Constantinople and destroyed Byzantine empire.
Great Ottoman leader, expanded land area of Ottomans, and restructured system of law.
A member of an elite force of soldiers in the Ottoman Empire.
People of the Pen
Ottoman government officials (ambassadors, provincial governors, etc)
People of the Sword
The people who worked in the army of the Ottomans
A large and wealthy city that was the imperial capital of the Byzantine empire and later the Ottoman empire, now known as Istanbul
a high government official in ancient Egypt or in Muslim countries
The most famous Muslim ruler of India during the period of Mughal rule. Famous for his religious tolerance, his investment in rich cultural feats, and the creation of a centralized governmental administration, which was not typical of ancient and post-classical India.
Mogul emperor of India during whose reign the finest monuments of Mogul architecture were built (including the Taj Mahal at Agra) (1592-1666)
Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death.
Manchu dynasty that seized control of China in mid-17th century after decline of Ming; forced submission of nomadic peoples far to the west and compelled tribute from Vietnam and Burma to the south.
a ruler of the Manchu dynasty who helped to create a prosperous, powerful, and culturally rich empire. He kept the empire away from the rest of the world. Only letting traders stay on one small island.
He was a British statesman, colonial administrator, and diplomat.
He led a mission in 1793 to the court of the Qianlong emperor
King George III sent Macartney to convince the Chinese emperor to open northern port cities to British traders
Chinese method of dealing with foreign lands and peoples that assumed the subordination of all non-Chinese authorities and required the payment of tribute—produce of value from their countries—to the Chinese emperor (although the Chinese gifts given in return were often much more valuable).
Transatlantic Slave Trade
The brutal system of trading African Slaves from Africa to the Americas. It changed the economy, politics, and environment. It affected Africa, Europe, and America. It implies that slaves were used for cash crops and created a whole new economy.
a trade route that exchanged goods between the West Indies, the American colonies, and West Africa
Absolute legal ownership of another person, including the right to buy or sell that person.
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
An antislavery activist who wrote a famous account of his enslavement.