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Terms in this set (51)
personal traits and social positions members of a society attach to being male and female
unequal distribution of wealth/power/privilege between men and women. "men are still in charge"
a form of social organization in which females dominate males
A form of social organization in which males dominate females
the belief that one sex is innately superior to the other
sexism found throughout the economy
attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex
the cost of sexism
sexism has a high price for men and women both
Inevitability of patriarchy
Most sociologists believe gender is socially constructed and can be changed.
Gender and Peer Groups
lever: boys favor team sports w complex rules and clear objectives, girls sports teach interpersonal skills and the value of sharing and cooperation
gilligan: boys reason according to abstract principles, girls consider morality a matter of responsibility to others
gender and schooling
- Gender shapes interests and beliefs; guides areas of study and career choices.
- Women are now well represented in many fields of study that once excluded them.
gender and mass media
-White males have center stage
-Minorities locked out until the early 1970's
-Women receive roles based on sex appeal
society teaches women to measure their worth in terms of physical appearance
working men and women
60% of all women work, 71% of working women work full time. women hold primary responsibility for housework and parenting. women earn 78 cents for every dollar men earn.
men dominate 99% of brick/stone masons and heavy equipment mechanics. majority architects, engineers, police, lawyers, physicians, surgeons, corporate managers are male
gender and education
women are 57% college students. 36% of women and 28% of men complete 4 year college degree. men still predominate in some professional fields.
gender and politics
women are shaping political attitudes, women are active in local, state politics, change coming to highest level of power.
a socially constructed category composed of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
a shared cultural heritage. socially constructed. ethnicity more complex than race. US multiethnic society. race constructed from biological traits, ethnicity from cultural traits (ancestry, religion, language)
any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates. distinct identity w lower status
rigid/unfair generalization about a category of people.
exaggerated description applied to every person in category
Belief that one race is superior to another
bias built into operations of societies
people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing
a minority group's adoption of the beliefs and way of life of the dominant culture
biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories
the physical and social separation of categories of people
systematic killing of a racial or cultural group
social institution cooperative groups to oversee bearing/raising of children
A social bond based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption (relation to others)
a legal relationship, usually involving economic cooperation, sexual activity, and childbearing
families of affinity
people who think of themselves as a family and wish others to see them that way
closely related people of several generations. "consanguine"
Mother, father and children living as a unit. predominate family form. "conjugal". traditional fam.
marriage between people of the same social category
marriage between people of different social categories
having more than one spouse at a time
marriage to a single mate
a form of marriage in which men have more than one wife
a form of marriage in which women have more than one husband
set apart as extraordinary, inspiring awe and reverence
ordinary elements of everyday life (not sacred)
belief based on conviction rather than on scientific evidence
a religious organization that is well integrated into the larger society
a church formally allied with the state
a church, independent of the state, that recognizes religious pluralism
a type of religious organization that stands apart from the larger society. many sects actively recruit members and value conversion
a religious organization that is largely outside a society's cultural traditions
the importance of religion in a person's life
structural functional analysis of families
explains why societies are built on families. glosses over great diversity of family life and how other institutions are taking over its roles. doesn't address negative aspects like patriarchy and family violence