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A weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War. The main thing to know regarding this is that they set up a very weak National government. This was not by accident but by design. The reason a weak government was desired was to avoid a strong national government that might take away unalienable rights or abuse their power (I.E.: England over her thirteen colonies). The major weaknesses of this were: 1.No executive branch (hence, no single leader) nor judicial branch. 2.A pitifully weak congress in which each state had only one vote (it required 2/3 majority on any subject of importance and a fully unanimous vote for amendments). 3. Congress could not regulate commerce (foreign or interstate trade). States competed with one another for foreign trade. 4. Congress could not enforce tax collection. There was no real army to speak of and congress could only call up soldiers from the states. 5. There was no common currency (states printed their ownmoney). However, the government was a model of what a loose confederation should be, and was a significant stepping-stone towards the establishment of the U.S. Constitution. Many thought the states wielded an alarming amount of power. The opposing plan to the Virginia Plan came from William Patterson of New Jersey, who lobbied to keep much of the material from this, while giving congress the ultimate power to tax and regulate commerce/trade. The Continental Congress of 1776 called upon colonies to draft new constitutions (thus began the formation of the this)
Secretary of Treasury-In charge of the economic budget and currency and leader of the Federalists. On May 25, 1787, 55 delegates from 12 states (Rhode Island did not send representation until mid-June) met in Philadelphia to "revise the Articles only." Among them were political all-stars like him, Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, and James Madison. The Federalist (later known as The Federalist Papers) is a collection of 85 articles and essays written (under the pseudonym Publius). he wrote 51 of the 85. Written by him, James Madison, and John Jay promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution. Was a key Federalists. Was a founding brother. Was a cabinet member. Created the Federalists Party. In the early morning hours of July 11, 1804, Aaron Burr and him departed by separate boats from Manhattan, New York and rowed across the Hudson River to a spot known as the Heights of Weehawken in New Jersey. This was a popular dueling ground along the Hudson because New Jersey had lax dueling laws. Burr had challenged him to a duel in late May of 1804. He had publicly questioned Burr's political and military career and his moral character. Burr believed the statements directly challenged his honor. The two had been associates but became political rivals. Upon arriving at the location, the "Code Duello" was followed. Weapons were chosen (pistols), witnesses present, and the men squared off. He shot first and missed, but Burr shot next and hit him. Burr managed to achieve his goal with a fatal gun shot to his abdomen (stomach). Burr went on the run but the charges were later dropped.
They were a group of men who supported the Constitution because they liked the separation of power and wanted that strength to reside in the hands of the National Government. They did not support a Bill of Rights. They favored a strong national government that shared some power with the states (concurrent powers). They argued that the checks and balances in the Constitution prevented any one of the three branches from acquiring preponderant (dominant) power. They believed that a strong national government was necessary to facilitate interstate commerce (trade from state to state) and to manage foreign trade, national defense, and foreign relations. They also argued that a national Bill of Rights would be redundant (repetitive), because the Constitution itself protected basic rights, and because most states already had bills of rights that clearly defined basic rights that the governments could not abolish (to get rid of). They wanted the new nation to focus on building infrastructure (roads and canals), an industrial economy, and establishing a National Bank (much like the centralized Bank of England). Key ---- were James Madison, George Washington, John Adams, and Alexander Hamilton. They favored the proposed stronger government and were against the Anti-Federalists' proposal for a Bill of Rights. They were generally embraced the more cultured and enlightened groups (many were from New England and Mid-Atlantic). They believed that every branch of government effectively represented the people, unlike Anti-federalists who believed that only the legislative branch did so.
A War between Britain and America (1812-1814). This was a war fought between England and America due to impressment of American sailors, seizing of American ships and freedom of the open seas (Macon's Bill No. 2), and the British supplying western Indian tribes. British ships were kidnapping American sailors and stopping American ships in the open waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Congress's "War Hawks" wanted war and got it (Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun). This War was declared with a House vote of 79 to 49 and a very close Senate vote of 19 to 13. War waged for two years. The war was fought in Canada, on the Atlantic, on the Great Lakes, and along the Mississippi. America comes out of it as a world power. There was no clear winner, but America received the most damage because it was fought on American soil. The Treaty of Ghent ended this war on December 24, 1814. This will also lead to the U.S. and Britain splitting the Oregon Territory (not settled until the 1840's). The United States declared war on Great Britain, British forces won the Battle of Queenston Heights in Canada, An American army advancing toward Detroit was defeated and captured at Frenchtown on the Raisin River, American forces captured York (now Toronto), the capital of Upper Canada. They later burned some public buildings, American naval forces under Master-Commandant Oliver Hazard Perry won the Battle of Lake Erie, American forces under General William Henry Harrison won the Battle of the Thames River in Moraviantown, an Indian village in Canada, British forces crossed the Niagara River, captured Fort Niagara, and burned Buffalo and neighboring villages, American forces under Major General Jacob Brown and Brigadier General Winfield Scott crossed the Niagara River from Buffalo and defeated the British at the Battle of Chippewa, British troops invaded Washington, D.C., and burned the Capitol and the White House, American naval forces defeated a British fleet in the Battle of Lake Champlain, The Americans and the British signed a peace treaty in Ghent, Belgium (Treaty of Ghent). Led by John Quincy Adams, American forces under General Andrew Jackson won the Battle of New Orleans.
His administration was marked by the acquisition of Florida (1819); the Missouri Compromise (1820), in which Missouri was declared a slave state; and the profession of the Monroe Doctrine (1823), declaring U.S. opposition to European interference in the Americas. 5th President, John Adams sent American diplomats to France and they were met by 3 French agents that demanded a ransom. The diplomats called them X,Y,& Z. The agents were him and John Marshall and they said no to the French extortion. Both diplomats returned home to the U.S. The emergence of the two party system will continue in every presidential election in our nation's history, with the exception of one. He ran uncontested in his 2nd term election (this is known as a "walkover" in an election). Jefferson sent Robert Livingston (a member of the D.O.I. committee) and him to buy territory from Napoleon Bonaparte. Known as the Louisiana Purchase. Elected from Virginia He easily won the election of 1816 as a Democratic Republican. He was the last of the Revolutionary presidents. Inaugurated in Washington, D.C. in March of 1817. He would serve two terms and his time in office was known as the "Era of Good Feelings." His vice president was Daniel Tompkins. James Monroe defeated his Federalist opponent (Rufus King) 183 to 34, and ushered in an era of one-party rule. •He straddled the generations of the Founding Fathers and the new Age of Nationalism. Early in 1817, he took a goodwill tour venturing deep into New England, where he received heartwarming welcomes.