Secretary of Treasury-In charge of the economic budget and currency and leader of the Federalists. On May 25, 1787, 55 delegates from 12 states (Rhode Island did not send representation until mid-June) met in Philadelphia to "revise the Articles only." Among them were political all-stars like him, Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, and James Madison. The Federalist (later known as The Federalist Papers) is a collection of 85 articles and essays written (under the pseudonym Publius). he wrote 51 of the 85. Written by him, James Madison, and John Jay promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution. Was a key Federalists. Was a founding brother. Was a cabinet member. Created the Federalists Party. In the early morning hours of July 11, 1804, Aaron Burr and him departed by separate boats from Manhattan, New York and rowed across the Hudson River to a spot known as the Heights of Weehawken in New Jersey. This was a popular dueling ground along the Hudson because New Jersey had lax dueling laws. Burr had challenged him to a duel in late May of 1804. He had publicly questioned Burr's political and military career and his moral character. Burr believed the statements directly challenged his honor. The two had been associates but became political rivals. Upon arriving at the location, the "Code Duello" was followed. Weapons were chosen (pistols), witnesses present, and the men squared off. He shot first and missed, but Burr shot next and hit him. Burr managed to achieve his goal with a fatal gun shot to his abdomen (stomach). Burr went on the run but the charges were later dropped. Known as the Father of the Constitution. In Virginia, George Mason authored The Virginia Declaration of Rights (adopted on June 26, 1776). This document inspired him when he wrote the Bill of Rights. On May 25, 1787, 55 delegates from 12 states (Rhode Island did not send representation until mid-June) met in Philadelphia to "revise the Articles only." Among them were political all-stars like Alexander Hamilton, Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, and him. He and Edmund Randolph of Virginia, framed and presented the "Virginia Plan." He was a Virginian and a brilliant political philosopher, often led the debate and kept copious notes of the proceedings—the best record historians have of what transpired at the Constitutional Convention. At the Convention, he authored the "Virginia Plan," which proposed a federal government of three separate branches (legislative, executive, judicial) and became the foundation for the structure of the new government. He later authored much of the Bill of Rights. Will become the forth president of the United States. The Federalist Papers was written by Alexander Hamilton, him , and John Jay promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution. Was a Key Federalists. He was chosen to author the Bill of Rights that would be added to the Constitution (that pushed NC and RI). Was a founding brother. A meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that produced a new constitution. Two Key Players at the this were George Washington, Chairman of this. Washington presided at this and, although seldom participating in the debates, lent his enormous prestige to the proceedings. And James Madison, "Father of the Constitution"Madison, a Virginian and a brilliant political philosopher, often led the debate and kept copious notes of the proceedings—the best record historians have of what transpired at this. At this, Madison authored the "Virginia Plan," which proposed a federal government of three separate branches (legislative, executive, judicial) and became the foundation for the structure of the new government. people who opposed the Constitution. They opposed the Constitution and thought that a central government would take away their state's rights. They refused to sign the Constitution unless a Bill of Rights was added to guarantee individual rights. This will lead to the creation of the Political Party System. (I.E.: Democratic-Republicans, Federalists, Democrats, Whigs, etc.). They believed a strong national government would tend to usurp (seize/take) the powers of the state governments, thereby concentrating too much power at the national level and too little at the state and local levels. They believed that notwithstanding the Federalists' arguments, a national Bill of Rights was necessary and, during the ratifying conventions in several states, forced the Federalists to pledge that a Bill of Rights would be the first order of business of the new government established by the Constitution. Key ---- were George Mason, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee. The Federalists favored the proposed stronger government and were against their proposal for a Bill of Rights. They believed that the Constitution was drawn up by aristocratic elements and was therefore anti-democratic. They were mostly the poor farmers, the illiterate, and states' rights devotees. Southerners and settlers in the west made up most of the party. They were a group of men who supported the Constitution because they liked the separation of power and wanted that strength to reside in the hands of the National Government. They did not support a Bill of Rights. They favored a strong national government that shared some power with the states (concurrent powers). They argued that the checks and balances in the Constitution prevented any one of the three branches from acquiring preponderant (dominant) power. They believed that a strong national government was necessary to facilitate interstate commerce (trade from state to state) and to manage foreign trade, national defense, and foreign relations. They also argued that a national Bill of Rights would be redundant (repetitive), because the Constitution itself protected basic rights, and because most states already had bills of rights that clearly defined basic rights that the governments could not abolish (to get rid of). They wanted the new nation to focus on building infrastructure (roads and canals), an industrial economy, and establishing a National Bank (much like the centralized Bank of England). Key ---- were James Madison, George Washington, John Adams, and Alexander Hamilton. They favored the proposed stronger government and were against the Anti-Federalists' proposal for a Bill of Rights. They were generally embraced the more cultured and enlightened groups (many were from New England and Mid-Atlantic). They believed that every branch of government effectively represented the people, unlike Anti-federalists who believed that only the legislative branch did so. He wrote the Declaration of independence. He drafted the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (passed January 16, 1786). Other states will adopt similar statutes. This will be an inspiration for the 1st Amendment of the Bill of Rights. In most states, the legislative branch was given sweeping powers, though some people, like him, warned that "173 delegates in a legislature would surely be as oppressive as one." However, people like him (Minister to France), John Adams (Minister to England), Sam Adams (refused to attend), Thomas Paine (made his way to France), John Hancock (refused to attend), and Patrick Henry (also refused to attend and said, "I smell a rat!") were not present. Was a founding brother. Part of the presidential cabinet Secretary of State- In charge of foreign affairs. Created Democratic-Republicans Party. Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional. Jeffersonians were angry, and Jefferson feared that the Federalists, having wiped out freedom of speech and of the press, might wipe out more. He wrote a series of legislation that became the this(k) in 1798-1799, and James Madison wrote another series of legislation (less extreme) called this. They stressed the "compact theory" of government which meant that the 13 states, in creating the federal government, had entered into a contract regarding its jurisdiction, and the individual states were the final judges of the laws passed in Congress. In other words, the states reserved the right to nullify federal laws. While neither Madison nor Jefferson wanted secession, they did want an end to Federalist abuses. A War between Britain and America (1812-1814). This was a war fought between England and America due to impressment of American sailors, seizing of American ships and freedom of the open seas (Macon's Bill No. 2), and the British supplying western Indian tribes. British ships were kidnapping American sailors and stopping American ships in the open waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Congress's "War Hawks" wanted war and got it (Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun). This War was declared with a House vote of 79 to 49 and a very close Senate vote of 19 to 13. War waged for two years. The war was fought in Canada, on the Atlantic, on the Great Lakes, and along the Mississippi. America comes out of it as a world power. There was no clear winner, but America received the most damage because it was fought on American soil. The Treaty of Ghent ended this war on December 24, 1814. This will also lead to the U.S. and Britain splitting the Oregon Territory (not settled until the 1840's). The United States declared war on Great Britain, British forces won the Battle of Queenston Heights in Canada, An American army advancing toward Detroit was defeated and captured at Frenchtown on the Raisin River, American forces captured York (now Toronto), the capital of Upper Canada. They later burned some public buildings, American naval forces under Master-Commandant Oliver Hazard Perry won the Battle of Lake Erie, American forces under General William Henry Harrison won the Battle of the Thames River in Moraviantown, an Indian village in Canada, British forces crossed the Niagara River, captured Fort Niagara, and burned Buffalo and neighboring villages, American forces under Major General Jacob Brown and Brigadier General Winfield Scott crossed the Niagara River from Buffalo and defeated the British at the Battle of Chippewa, British troops invaded Washington, D.C., and burned the Capitol and the White House, American naval forces defeated a British fleet in the Battle of Lake Champlain, The Americans and the British signed a peace treaty in Ghent, Belgium (Treaty of Ghent). Led by John Quincy Adams, American forces under General Andrew Jackson won the Battle of New Orleans. His administration was marked by the acquisition of Florida (1819); the Missouri Compromise (1820), in which Missouri was declared a slave state; and the profession of the Monroe Doctrine (1823), declaring U.S. opposition to European interference in the Americas. 5th President, John Adams sent American diplomats to France and they were met by 3 French agents that demanded a ransom. The diplomats called them X,Y,& Z. The agents were him and John Marshall and they said no to the French extortion. Both diplomats returned home to the U.S. The emergence of the two party system will continue in every presidential election in our nation's history, with the exception of one. He ran uncontested in his 2nd term election (this is known as a "walkover" in an election). Jefferson sent Robert Livingston (a member of the D.O.I. committee) and him to buy territory from Napoleon Bonaparte. Known as the Louisiana Purchase. Elected from Virginia He easily won the election of 1816 as a Democratic Republican. He was the last of the Revolutionary presidents. Inaugurated in Washington, D.C. in March of 1817. He would serve two terms and his time in office was known as the "Era of Good Feelings." His vice president was Daniel Tompkins. James Monroe defeated his Federalist opponent (Rufus King) 183 to 34, and ushered in an era of one-party rule. •He straddled the generations of the Founding Fathers and the new Age of Nationalism. Early in 1817, he took a goodwill tour venturing deep into New England, where he received heartwarming welcomes.