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ESCI In-Class Quizzes
Terms in this set (78)
Which of the following are composed primarily of lipids?
E.Both A and B
Which of the following macromolecules are composed of sugar monomers?
Which of the following is an example of homeostasis:
A. Synthesis of new proteins
B. Production of ATP
D. Cell division
E. Temperature regulation
Over what timescales does the organic matter (i.e., carbon) in the sediments and rocks of oceanic lithospheric plates typically cycle from the Earth's surface through the mantle and back to the Earth's surface?
A. A few years
B. Tens of years
C. Tens of thousands of years
D. Millions to tens of millions of years
millions to tens of millions of years
What is the approximate age of Earth?
A. 2.5 billion years
B. 3.8 billion years
C. 4.5 billion years
D. 13.7 billion years
4.5 billion years
Which of the following is not one of the six most abundant elements in a cell:
Protein synthesis occurs primarily in the:
Which of the following processes returns carbon as CO2to the global carbon cycle?
B.Volcanic eruptions at convergent plate boundaries
C.Deposition of organic matter as sediments on oceanic lithosphere
D.Chemical weathering of silicate rocks
volcanic eruptions at convergent plate boundaries
Which of these reservoirs of carbon in the global carbon cycle contains the largest mass of carbon?A.Deep ocean
The primary chemical function of an enzyme is to:
A. Create double stranded breaks in macromolecules
B. Lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction
C. Aid in the digestion of organic molecules
D. Increase entropy in the system
lower the activationenergy of a chemical reaction
Consider the sequence of nucleotides below. Which of the following macromolecules does it represent?
The primary function of ATP in the cell is to:
A. Provide energy for cell processes
B. Split water
C. Provide phosphorous for cell processes
D. Create a proton gradientwith more hydrogen inside the cell
provide energy for cell processes
Which of the following is the best choice for the primary function of protein?
B.Structure or catalysis
structure or catalysis
A redox (or oxidation-reduction) reaction is a reaction that involves:
A. A change in pH
B. A transfer of electrons
C. The dissolution of a mineral
D. The precipitationof a salt
a transfer of electrons
Polysaccharides are used for structure and energy storagein the cell.
Transcriptionis the process in which messenger RNA is converted to protein.
mino acids attach directly to DNA in the ribosome to synthesize proteins.
The nucleotide guanine is found in both RNA and DNA
The gain of electrons by a chemical species is called reduction.
Which of the following is an acceptable definition of evolution?
A. A change in gene frequencies in a population over time
B. Descent with modification from a common ancestor
C. Both of the above
D. None of the above
both of the above
The availability of which of the following elements can limit the growth of photosynthetic life because it is principally derived from the relatively-slow weathering of rocks:
In order for aerobic respiration to occur, an organism requires:
C. Access to a suitable terminal electron acceptor
D. Oxidized chloroplasts
access to a suitable terminal electron acceptor
Bioavailable nitrogen in the form of ammonia comes principally from which source:
A. Transformations of N2by lightening
B. Enzymatic splitting of N2by plant cells
C. Enzymatic splitting of N2 by bacteria
D. Ultraviolet light breaking apart N2
enzymatic splitting of N by bacteria
The gene that confers resistance to Roundup in many genetically engineered plants was discovered:
A. By researchers who designed its nucleotide sequence artificially in the lab
B. By researchers who found it in bacteria living in Roundup manufacturing waste
C. By researchers who were studying bacteria that it infected genetically modified corn
D. By researcherswho wanted to prevent the spread of genetically engineered crops
by researchers who found it in bacteria living in Roundup manufacturing waste
A heterotroph gets its carbon from:
A. Organic molecules
B. Carbon dioxide
C. The atmosphere
D. Carbonate rocks
Which of the following metabolic processes DOES NOT use a chemiosmotic proton gradient to produce ATP?
A. Aerobic respiration
Animal life at deep sea hydrothermal vents (black smokers) that feed on chemolithotrophic bacteria (for example, the Yeti crab) are examples of:
Bacteria that use reduced iron as an electron donor to gain energy for their metabolism are example of:
The primary function of the light-dependent reactions(Step 1)in photosynthesis is to:
A. Split CO2to regenerate chlorophyll
B. ProduceCO2 using the electron transport chain
C. ProduceATP that can be used to power the electron transport chain
D. Produce ATP using the electron transport chain, that can be used to fix carbon from CO2into biomass
Produce ATP using the electron transport chain, that can be used to fix carbon from CO2into biomass
The primary function of the light-independent reactions(aka the Calvin cycle)in photosynthesis is to:
A. Split water to regenerate chlorophyll
B. Fix carbon from CO2into an organic form such as a sugar
C. Provide ATP to the electron transport chain
D. Provide ATP to the light-dependent reactions
Fix carbon from CO2into an organic form such as a sugar
Which of the following is necessary for natural selection to occur?
A. High mutation rate in a population
B. Low morphological diversity in a population
C. Sexual reproduction
D. Heritable variation in a population
heritable variation in a population
Chemolithoautotrophs primarily obtain their energy from chemical bonds in organic molecules:
Almost all of the carbon taken up by plants and fixed into biomass is buried in the soil and over time, is transformed into crude oil:
Glycolysis occurs in both fermentation and respiration.
The enzyme RUBISCO makes O2 from the breakdown of CO2 during the citric acid cycle.
Only populations, not individuals, can evolvevia natural selection.
Antibiotics that target the synthesis of a bacterial cell wall also work well against viruses
The horseshoe crab is an example of a living fossil that hasn't evolved in millions of years.
The evolution of eukaryotes appears to coincide with which one of the following?
A.An increase in oxygen in the atmosphere
B.The first appearance of detrital grains of minerals that are easily oxidized
C.The first appearance of fossil tracks and traces
D.The evolution of giant Archaea
an increase in oxygen in the atmosphere
Which of the following is NOT considered a fossil of an early Eukaryote?
D.Neither A nor B are thought to be fossil Eukaryotes
E.A, B, and C are all thought to befossil Eukaryotes
A, B, and C are all thought to befossil Eukaryotes
Evolutionarily, mitochondria are thought to be derived from:
D. the nucleus
Which of the following is the oldest unambiguous evidence of eukaryotic life that clearly represents a group of organisms that still exist today?
B.fossilized red algae
fossilized red algae
The sequence and hierarchy of time intervals in the Phanerozoic was primarily determined on the basis of what method?
Lithostratigraphy6.Which of the following represents the earliest evidence of bio mineralized animals in the fossil record?
A.Namacalathus and Cloudina
B.The Ediacaran fossils
D.The small shelly fauna
E.Trace fossils at the Cambrian boundary
Namacalathus and Cloudina
Reproductive cells (gametes) in humans always:
C.Contain one complete set of chromosomes
D.Contain two complete sets of chromosomes
contain one complete set of chromosomes
A friend hands you a rock from Earth that contains bits of detrital pyrite. Based on this, what can you say about the age of the rock?
A.Older than 2.4 Ga
B.Younger than 2.4 Ga
C.Older than 542 Ma but younger than 2.4 Ga
D.Younger than 542 Ma
E.Older than 3.5 Ga
older than 2.4 Ga
In which eon does the earliest possible evidence of life appear in the rock record?Select one:
A mineral sample that has remained a closed system since it crystallized contains 12.5% parent isotope with a half-life of 400 Ma and 87.5% daughter isotope. How many half-lives have passed and what is the age of this mineral?
A.Half of one half-life, 200 Ma
B.Two half-lives, 800 Ma
C.Two half-lives, 1200 Ma
D.Three half-lives, 100 Ma
E.Three half-lives, 1200 Ma
Three half-lives, 1200 Ma
Approximately when did Earth's most extensive ice ages (glaciation)happen?
A.Approximately coinciding with a period of increased oxygen content in the ocean
B.During the Archean just after the appearance of the oldest fossils
C.Within the last 10,000 years
D.Within the last million years
Approximately coinciding with a period of increased oxygen content in the ocean
Which of the following is thought to be an endosymbiosis event that occurred during the evolution of eukaryotes?
A.The acquisition of sexual characteristics in red algae
B.The acquisition of collar cells in sponges
C.The acquisition of chloroplasts
D.The acquisition of the ability for Ricketsia-like bacteria to perform oxidative phosphorylation
the acquisition of chloroplasts
Which of the following statements about sexual reproduction is FALSE?
A.Sexual reproduction allows faster spread of beneficial mutations in a population
B.Sexual reproduction helps populations avoid Muller's ratchet
C.After two or more generations, sexually-reproducing individuals will have produced the same number of offspring as asexual individuals
D.Sexual reproduction might be advantageous over short time scales because it helps adapt to parasite infection
E.Sexually-reproducing parents each contributehalf of their DNA to their offspring
After two or more generations, sexually-reproducing individuals will have produced the same number of offspring as asexual individuals
Which of the following mechanisms creates genetic diversity during the process of meiosis?
A. XY chromosome differentiation
B. Duplication of chromosomes
C. Genetic drift
D. Genetic recombination, also known as "crossing over"
E. None of the above
Genetic recombination, also known as "crossing over"
Which of the following was likely not happening in the early Archean biosphere?
The Snowball Earth glaciations caused the complete extinction of life on Earth.
Chloroplasts have their own small chromosomesthat include a 16S rRNA gene sequencethat is closely related to cyanobacteria
Radiocarbon (14C) dating is generally used to date the most ancient events in Earth history.
All eukaryotes are animals.
Mitosis produces four diploid cells, which become gametes.
What is the function of stomata?
A.Gas exchange between leaves and the atmosphere
B.They perform the light reactions of photosynthesis
C.Transport of photosynthates from the leaves to the roots
D.Uptake of water from the soil
Gas exchange between leaves and the atmosphere
How do leaves cool off?
A.Uptake of cool water from the soil
B.Evaporation of leaf water and release as water vapor
C.Leaves have no mechanism to cool off
D.Uptake of CO2 beyond the needs for photosynthesis
Evaporation of leaf water and release as water vapor
Which of thefollowing was the most severe mass extinction in at least the last 550 million years?A.Cretaceous-Paleogene
Why did large leaf size only evolve millions of years after the origin of leaves?
A.Atmospheric CO2concentrations were too low initially to allow large leaves
B.Global climate was too cold to allow for large leaves
C.High atmospheric CO2did not permit enough stomata to allow large leaves too cool off sufficiently
D.Atmospheric O2concentrations were at the highest level in Earth history during the Devonian and did not permit large leaf size
High atmospheric CO2 did not permit enough stomata to allow large leaves too cool off sufficiently
What would be the initial effect on deep water chemistry if a large mass of organic matter (i.e., much larger than normal for the site) is delivered from the photic zone to the deep ocean floor, all else being unchanged?
A.Decrease in CO2
B.Increase in O2
C.Decrease in O2
D.Decrease in H2S
decrease in O2
When did plants with seeds first appear in the fossil record?
The burial of excess plant material in widespread coal swamps during the Carboniferous had what primary effect on the Earth system?
A.Increase in atmospheric CO2concentration
B.Global warming and the end of a major ice age
C.No net change
D.Increase in atmospheric O2 concentration to the highest level in Earth history
Increase in atmospheric O2 concentration to the highest level in Earth history
A very large mass of photosynthetic algae (phytoplankton)dies and sinks to the ocean floor and is buried by sediment without decaying. If nothing else changes, what would be the effect on the concentration of CO2in the atmosphere?
D.Increase then decrease
The summary chemical equation for photosynthesis in plants is:6CO2+ 6H2O + solar energy --> C6H12O6+ 6O2The reverse reaction, which is the metabolic pathway you use, is what?
What is the primary function of Hox proteins during vertebrate development?
A.Specification of the up-down (dorsal-ventral) body axis
B.Specification of mesoderm
C.Position and structural identity along the head-tail (anterior-posterior) body axis or along/within a skeletal structure
D. Hox proteins are only expressed during the development of fruit flies
Position and structural identity along the head-tail (anterior-posterior) body axis or along/within a skeletal structure
Which of the following are possible effects of the massive volcanism in Siberia in the latest Permian to earliest Triassic?
A.Increased concentration of CO2in the ocean and atmosphere
B.Perturbations to the global carbon cycle
C.Anoxia in the ocean
D.All of the above
E.None of the above
all of the above
Although basically all clades of marine organisms experienced extinctions during the Permo-Triassic, organisms with physiologies particularly sensitive to what environmental factor experienced particularly high extinction rates?
A.High concentrations of O2
B.High concentrations of CO2
D.Decreased concentration of H2S dissolved in sea water
high concentrations of CO2
When did the Cambrian Explosion happen?
A.Only during the Late Cambrian Period
B.Over 10-20 million years during the Early Cambrian Period
C.Precisely at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary
Over 10-20 million years during the Early Cambrian Period
Which aspect of biodiversity increased during the Cambrian Explosion to the level characteristic of the rest of the Phanerozoic Eon?
Molecular clock estimates of the origination dates suggest that most of the major clades of animals first evolved when?
B.Late Cambrian Period
C.Early Cambrian Period
D.Neoproterozoic Era (Ediacaran and Cryogenian Periods)
E.Mesoproterozoic and Paleoproterozoic
Neoproterozoic Era (Ediacaran and Cryogenian Periods)
The paired fins of vertebrates evolved before the midline fins.
All clades of metazoans (animals) have Hoxgenes.
Arms and legs with wrists and ankles with hands and feet with fingers and toes first evolved in a tetrapod that already lived on land.
The concentration of CO2in the atmosphere has never been as high as it is today.
Land plants and soils store more carbon in the modern global carbon cycle than does the atmosphere.
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