AP Gov Supreme Court Cases
Terms in this set (28)
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Chief Justice John Marshall limits of the US constitution and of the authority of the federal and state gov; one side was opposed to establishment of a national bank and challenged the authority of federal gov to establish one. supreme court ruled that power of federal gov was supreme that of the states and the states couldn't interfere
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
The Supreme Court upheld broad congressional power to regulate interstate commerce. The Court's broad interpretation of the Constitution's commerce clause paved the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers.
United States v. Lopez (1995)
Commerce clause of Constitution does not give Congress the power to regulate guns near state-operated schools
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
Says that slaves are not citizens.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Separate but equal
Schneck v. United States (1919)
Free Speech - Clear and Present Danger doctrine with respect to subversive and unpopular speech. "Can't shout fire in a theater", etc.
Gitlow v. New York (1925)
Established precedent of federalizing Bill of Rights (applying them to the states); states cannot deny freedom of speech --protected through due process clause of Amendment 14
Korematsu v. US (1944)
Says that the government can intern (imprison) citizens during wartime emergencies
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Baker v. Carr (1962)
"One man, one vote." Ordered state legislative districts to be as near equal as possible in population
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
Established exclusionary rule; illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in court
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
Prohibited state-sponsored recitation of prayer in public schools by virtue of 1st Amendment's establishment clause and the 14th Amendment's due process clause
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
Extends to the defendant the right of counsel in all state and federal criminal trials regardless of their ability to pay.
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
Found a "right to privacy" in the Constitution that would ban any state law against selling contraceptives
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
The court ruled that those subjected to in-custody interrogation be advised of their constitutional right to an attorney and their right to remain silent.
Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)
Guaranteed a student's right to protest (wearing armbands). Freedom of speech in schools.
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
Allowed states to provide textbooks and busing to students attending private religious schools. Established 3-part test to determine if establishment clause is violated: nonsecular purpose, advances/inhibits religion, excessive entanglement with government.
New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
The Supreme Court concluded that "actual malice" must be proved to support a finding of libel against a public figure.
Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972)
The Court ruled that Wisconsin could not require Amish parents to send their children to public school beyond the eighth grade because it would violate long-held religious beliefs.
Roe v. Wade (1973)
Abortion rights fall within the privacy implied in the 14th amendment
Buckley v. Valeo (1976)
1st Amendment protects campaign spending; legislatures can limit contributions, but not how much one spends of his own money on campaigns.
California Regents v. Bakke (1978)
Landmark case that paved the way for issues involving affirmative action. The Court held that a state university could not admit less qualified applicants solely because of their race (quotas). However, a university could adopt an "admissions program where race or ethnic background is simply one element- to be weighed fairly against other elements- in the selection process."
Planned Parenthood of SE Pennsylvaniav. Casey (1992)
States can regulate abortion, but not with regulations that impose "undue burden" upon women; did not overturn Roe v. Wade, but gave states more leeway in regulating abortion (e.g., 24-hour waiting period, parental consent for minors)
Shaw v. Reno (1993)
NO racial gerrymandering; race cannot be the sole or predominant factor in redrawing legislative boundaries; majority-minority districts.
United States v. Morrison (2000)
Congress DOES NOT have the authority to enact the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 under either the Commerce Clause or Fourteenth Amendment
Bush v. Gore (2000)
Use of 14th Amendment's equal protection clause to stop the Florida recount in the election of 2000.
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010)
A 2010 landmark Supreme Court case that ruled that individuals, corporations, and unions could donate unlimited amounts of money to groups that make independent political expenditures.
McDonald v. Chicago (2010)
Incorporated the 2nd Amendment right to bear arms to the states