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a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

The set of processes that arouse, direct, and maintain human behavior toward attaining some goal

Four perspectives psychologists have used in their attempt to understand motivated behaviors:

instinct theory (now replaced by the evolutionary perspective)

drive reduction theory

arousal theory

hierarchy of needs

instinct theory

focuses on genetically predisposed behaviors

Drive reduction theory

focuses on how our inner pushes and external pulls interact
Arousal theory- focuses on finding the right level of stimulation

hierarchy of needs

describes how some of our needs take priority over others


a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

Many psychologists view human behavior as directed both by:

physiological needs and by psychological wants

drive-reduction theory

the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

With few exceptions, when a physiological need increases, so does a

psychological drive


a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

The physiological aim of drive reduction is



a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

Human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but to seek _____

optimum levels of arousal (curiosity, etc)

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active

hierarchy of needs

Belongingness and love

People in a motivational "hot" state (from fatigue, hunger, or sexual arousal) become more aware of :

having had such feelings in the past and more sympathetic to how fatigue, hunger, or sexual arousal might drive others' behaviors.


the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissue. When its level is low, we feel hunger

Increases in the hormone insulin (secreted by the pancreas) do what?

diminish blood glucose, partly by converting it into stored fat. Your brain automatically monitors your blood chemistry and internal state and will trigger hunger when blood glucose drops.

Signals from your stomach, intestines, and liver (indicating whether glucose is being deposited or withdrawn) all signal your brain

to motivate eating or not


The small but complex neural traffic intersection deep in the brain

wo distinct hypothalamic centers influence eating:

Activity along the sides of it (the lateral hypothalamus) brings on hunger. If electrically stimulated there, animals begin to eat.
When blood glucose drops, the lateral hypothalamus churns out the hunger-triggering hormone orexin.

Activity in the lower mid-hypothalamus (the ventromedial hypothalamus) depresses hunger.
Problems here lead to obesity and overeating

In addition to producing orexin, the hypothalamus monitors levels of the body's other appetite hormones:



a hunger-arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach (stapled stomachs produce less)


a sister hormone to gherkin produced by the same gene that sends out a fullness signal to suppress hunger


a hormone secreted by the digestive tract


a protein that is secreted by fat cells and acts to diminish the rewarding pleasures of food

set point

the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight

basal metabolic rate

the body's resting rate of energy expenditure

When feeling stressed, we crave starchy, carbohydrate-laden food because:

carbs boost the level of serotonin, which has calming effects.

Exposure to one set of novel foods increases ____

our willingness to try another


dislike of unfamiliar things

At tenth week of pregnancy, when food aversion peaks,_____

the embryo is most vulnerable to toxins.

social facilitation

the presence of others tends to amplify our natural behavioral tendencies

unit bias

eat more if unit is bigger (France vs America)

anorexia nervosa:

what fraction are females?

what fraction display binge-purge depression cycle?

usually triggered by:

An eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and become significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve

¾ are females

About half display a binge-purge-depression cycle

Usually triggered by a weight loss diet

bulimia nervosa:


may be triggered by:

what group mostly has it?

also experience what?

marked by___

An eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise

May be triggered by a weight loss diet

Mostly women in late teens or twenties

Experience bouts of depression and anxiety, most severe during and following binges

Marked by weight fluctuations within or above normal ranges, making it easy to hide

binge-eating disorder

significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa

In their lifetimes, _% of people meet criteria for anorexia, _% bulimia, and _% binge-eating disorder




how can family environment provide ground for an eating disorder?

Mothers of girls with eating disorders focus on their own weight and the weight and appearance of their daughters

Families of bulimia patients have a higher-than-usual incidence of childhood obesity and negative self-evaluation

Families of anorexia patients tend to be competitive, high-achieving, and protective

psychological characteristics of people with anorexia: (4)

Have low self-evaluations

Set perfectionistic standards

Fret about falling short of expectations

Intensely concerned with how others perceive them

__% of Americans are overweight


Adult obesity in US has ____ over the past 40 years, reaching 34%

Child-teen obesity has _____



Significant obesity increases the risk of ______

diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, gallstones, arthritis, and certain types of cancer, thus shortening life expectancy

weight bias is especially strong against:


A typical adult has ____(#) fat cells

30 to 40 billion

After first three weeks of a rigorous diet:

weight loss decreases

____correlation of body weights between identical twins reared apart


A variant of a gene called ___ nearly doubles the risk of becoming obese


With sleep deprivation, the levels of ____ (which reports body fat to the brain) fall and _____ (the stomach hormone that stimulates appetite) rise


A reasonable timeline for a ___% reduction in body weight is _ months



sexual response cycle

the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution

refractory period

a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

sexual disorder

a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning

Sex hormones have two effects:

they direct the physical development of male and female sex characteristics

and (especially in nonhuman animals) they activate sexual behavior.


sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity


the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

Women's sexuality differs from that of other mammalian females in being more responsive to _____ level then to ____ levels.



Environmental factors account for almost __% of the individual variation in age of sexual initiation


Sexually active teens are usually _______ teens

alcohol drinking

Teenage girls are especially susceptible to STDs because they have ______

lower levels of protective antibodies

4 Predictors of sexual constraint:

High intelligence
Religious engagement
Father presence
Participation in service learning programs

sexual orientation

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)

gender difference in erotic plasticity

In men, a high sex drive is associated with an increased attraction to women. For women, it is for men and women.

brain size and sexual orientation correlation

Gay men and straight women have brain hemispheres of similar size, whereas in lesbian women and straight men, the right hemisphere is larger.

a cell cluster in the hypothalamus is bigger for ____

for heterosexual men and homosexual women

A critical period for the human brain's neural-hormonal control system may exist between_____ after conception

the middle of the second and fifth months

On several traits, gays and lesbians appear to fall ____ between straight females and males.



"my humanity is caught up, is inextricably bound up, in yours"


social exclusion




Job- unfulfilling but necessary way to make money

Career- an opportunity to advance from one position to a better position

Calling- fulfilling and socially useful activity (highest satisfaction)


a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills.

psychological contract

the subjective sense of mutual obligations between workers and employees

Industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

personnel psychology

a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development

organizational psychology

a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change

First step to a stronger organization is instituting a _____

strengths-based selection system

interviewer illusion

interviewers overrate their discernment

Four factors explain this gap between interviewers' intuition and the resulting reality:

Interviews disclose the interviewee's good intentions, which are less revealing then habitual behaviors. (good to see references)

Interviewers more often follow the successful careers of those they have hired than the successful careers of those they have rejected or lost track of.

Interviewers presume that people are what they seem to be in the interview situation

Interviewers' preconceptions and moods color how they perceive interviewees' responses

structured interviews

interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rate on established scores

Structured interviews have ____ the predictive accuracy of unstructured interviews


360 degree feedback

rated by manager, yourself, other colleagues, and customers

3 Performance appraisal methods

Graphic rating scales (one trait)
Behavior rating scales (multiple traits, sort of)

halo errors

when evaluation of one trait biases evaluations of other traits

Leniency or severity errors

too hard or too soft

recency errors

when raters focus only on easily remembered recent behavior

Achievement motivation

a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for rapidly attaining a high standard

____ has been a better predictor of success in college students than intelligence



passionate dedication to an ambitious long-term goal

Employee engagement

the extent of workers' involvement, enthusiasm, and identification with their organizations

There is a_____ correlation between satisfied employees and company success

moderate positive

task leadership

goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals. Typically have a directive style

social leadership

group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support. Often have a democratic style. Good for morale

democratic style

delegate authority and welcome the participation of team members

Great person theory of leadership-

all great leaders share certain traits. Overrated

transformational leadership

motivates others to identify with and commit themselves to the group's mission (natural extraverts). More women than men

voice effect

if given a chance to voice their opinion during a decision-making process, people will respond more positively to the decision

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