Terms in this set (101)
the semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.
strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane in plant cells
A structure that helps with cell division, which is surrounded by microtubules
An organelle that turns sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into Sugar during Photosynthesis
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Makes proteins and lipids
The post office that packages and sends along membrane bound sacs of materials
An organelle containing digestive enzymes (Suicide Sack)
Powerhouse of the cell
Holds the DNA of the Cell and has pores
Makes ribosomes with RNA
Control center of the cell
Hairlike structures that helps a cell move
Moves and holds organelles in the cell; strengths cell
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
organism that lacks a nucleus
Only certain substances can pass through
Functions of the Microtubules
Help with Cell Division
Help with movements (Silla)
Organelles Specific to Animal Cells
Organelles Specific to Plant Cells
Is the Cell Membrane made of Saturated or Unsaturated Fats
The diffusion gradient is the concentration of molecules over a volume
Ancestors of mitochondria and chloroplasts was prokaryotic that came to live in a host cell and formed a beneficial relationship for both of them
What type of energy does active transport use
3 Types of Diffusion
diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport
Does going against the concentration gradient use energy
Does diffusion require energy?
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
When a solution has a higher concentration of solute than another solution.
When a solution has a lower concentration of solute than another solution
What type of solution would make a cell shrink
What type of solution would make a cell grow
What type of solution would make a cell stay the same size
What makes Proteins.
when a cell gets rid of waste by surrounding it with cell membrane and pushes it out of the cell
What shape is a plant cell
What shape is a Animal Cell
hereditary storage of genetic material
Deconstructed DNA in a Nucleus
Powers the Reaction
A reactant for the reaction
Light Dependent Reaction
Needs light to function, takes in sunlight and water and makes oxygen and H+ ions
A depleted energy storage molecule.
ADP + P
Adenosine Diphosphate (An energy storage molecule) which is in a lower energy state than when it is in ATP
Adenosine TriPhosphate, an energy storage molecule with energy being stored in it.
An energy storage molecule with energy stored in it.
Contains the Light Dependant reactions in photosynthesis. In stacks called grana
Stacks of Thylakoids
Produced by the light dependent reactions in photosynthesis, taken in by cellular respiration
What are three factors that affect the rate of
How do plants store the excess energy they produce? Give examples
They convert it to larger polysaccharides like starch (amylose). Many plants have specialized structures to do this like a potato.
Why do most plants appear green in color?
Chlorophyll reflects green light and absorbs most other colors
Why do they sometimes say that the forests of our planet are the "lungs of earth"?
They take in Carbon dioxide and produce oxygen, sort of like the opposite of what our lungs do
Convert light energy into chemical potential energy
Overall equation for photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
reactants of photosynthesis
carbon dioxide and water
products of photosynthesis
C6H12O6 + 6O2
Location of Light-Dependent Reaction
Location of Light-Independent Reaction
A simple sugar that is an important source of energy.
the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, 2 ATPs and pyruvic acid.
end product of glycolysis
second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
electron transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
function of cellular respiration
Convert food energy into ATP
Overall Equation for cellular respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H20
Reactants of Cellular Respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2
Products of Cellular Respiration
6CO2 + 6H20
Location of Glycolysis
In the cytoplasm
Location of Cellular Respiration
Starting molecule of Glycolysis
Starting molecule of Cellular Respiration
Pyruvate (pyruvic acid)
Number of ATP produced in Glycolysis
Total number of ATP produced in Glycolysis + Cellular Respiration
How are the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration dependent on each other?
They are dependent on each other because they produce what each other needs
What does the word "glycolysis" mean?
What is the difference between an aerobic process and an anaerobic process?
An aerobic process requires oxygen and an anaerobic process does not require oxygen
Where does lactic acid fermentation occur?
Where does alcoholic fermentation occur?
How does ATP release energy?
When the bond between the 2nd and 3rd phosphate bond is broken
How does ATP store energy?
When 3rd phosphate adds to ADP
What does ATP stand for and what is it?
Adenosine triphosphate; high energy phosphate molecule required to provide energy for cellular function. It is produced both aerobically and anaerobically
What does ADP stand for?
How do plants store energy?
How do animals store energy?
as fats and about 20 minutes worth of Glycogen
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
A substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.
A simple compound whose molecules join together to form polymers
Basic unit of matter
Very Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in the molecule having a positive end and a negative end, such as water
protein that acts as a biological catalyst, speeding up chemical reactions
A mixture that forms when one substance dissolves another.
Nutrients the body uses to build and maintain its cells and tissues
A chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
positively and negatively charged atoms
the starches and sugars present in foods
A group of atoms bonded together
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