103 terms

Branscum - Poultry

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Production of Table Eggs and Meat
Commercial Poultry Operations have 2 overall objectives
Cockerals
Young Male Chickens
Pullets
Young Female Chickens
Hens
Production Ready Female Chicken
90%
Percent of all table eggs produced by caged hens in large houses
3.0-3.5 Pounds
In Egg Production, the goal is to receive 1 dozen eggs for how many pounds of feed
52-80 Weeks
Period of laying for chickens
240-350
Goal of egg produced during a laying cycle
Egg Breeder Operation
Table Egg operation where parent birds produce fertile hatching eggs
Egg Pullet Operations
Table Egg Operations that produce pullets to replace older flocks of hens
Leghorn
Type of chicken most commonly used for laying
16-17 weeks
How old are Leghorn pullets raised on egg pullet operations
Egg Laying Operations
Segment of Table Egg Industry where hens produce infertile eggs
Egg Processing Operations
Facilities that sort, grade, and wash eggs
Broiler Meat Production
Purpose to provide meat for human consumption
Cornish and White Plymouth Rock
2 types of chickens crossed for broiler production
Broiler Breeding Operations
Broiler operations that produce broiler breeding females and males to replace older breeding flock
20 weeks
Birds are raised on broiler breeding operation until what age
7 Pounds
In broiler breeding operations, the goal is 1 dozen eggs for how many pounds of feed
85%
What is the goal for hatchability of broiler eggs?
Broiler Growing Operations
Broiler operation that raises chicks from hatching to market weight
Broiler
young meat chicken of either sex
1-6
Broiler Growout Farms have how many houses on average
5-7
Number of flocks raised annually on broiler farms
99%
percent of broiler farms that operate under a contract system
3.5-4.5 pounds
At 6-7 weeks, a broiler should weigh how much?
2 Pounds
How many pounds of feed should it take for a broiler to gain a pound?
Broiler Processing and Marketing Operations
Broiler operations that process the broiler chickens
Broad Breasted White
Most common turkey meat breed
Poult
Young Turkey
Toms
Male Turkey
Hen
Female Turkey
Turkey Breeding Operations
Turkey operations that raise male and females to replaced older breeding flocks
25-30
In a turkey breeding operation, turkeys are raised until what age?
Artificial Insemination
Method of breeding turkeys
Turkey Grow-Out Operations
Turkey operations that raise birds from hatching to market weight
16,000-18000 birds
A typical turkey growout barn can hold how many birds?
95%
Percent of turkey farms under a contract system
2.5 pounds
Turkeys need how many pound of feed to gain a pound of body weight
Turkey Processing and Marketing Operations
Operations where turkeys are processed and packaged
Genetics
Poultry careers that improve the breeding program
Pharmaceuticals
Careers in poultry that help control diseases
Nutrition
Careers in poultry that discover new feed ingredients and formulate feed rations
Engineering
Poultry careers that help create more automated systems
Production
Poultry careers that produced poultry and operate farms
Food Science and Processing
Poultry careers that lead to advancement in food manufacturing technology combined with food safety.
Agribusiness
Poultry careers that provide breeders with services such as banking, accounting, and materials
Animal
Kingdom that all poultry fall under
Aves
Class that all poultry fall under
4
Number of Chambers in a Poultry Heart
Galliformes
Chicken, guinea fowl, turkey, and pheasants all belong to what order?
Anseriformes
Order that ducks and geese fall under
300
Number of beats per minute for poultry
105-107
Average Temperature for Poultry
Hollow Bones
Poultry have lighter skeletons due to what?
2.5 Hours
Amount of time it takes for food to pass through the body of laying chickens
8-12 Hours
Amount of time it takes for food to pass through the body of nonlaying chickens
Epidermis
Outer Layer of Skin of Poultry
Dermis
Inner Layer of skin in poultry
Yellow
Skin color preferred for meat production
Comb
Skin feature on top of the head
Dubbing
Removing of the comb on a chicken
Wattling
Skin feature under the beak
Dewattling
The process of removing the wattle
Secondary sex characteristics
The comb and wattles serve as what?
Earlobes
What part of poultry determine the color of chicken eggs?
Pterylea
Feathers come from tracts called what?
Genetic
The colors of feathers are a ______ trait in birds
White
Turkeys and Chickens are usually what feather color?
Molting
The shedding of older feathers
Pectorial
This muscle makes up 15% - 20% of a birds weight compared to 1% of human body weight
Abdominis
Muscle that supports the abdomen
Coccygis
Muscle that elevates and depresses the tail
Flexor Peforans
Muscle that flexes the toes
Gastrocnemius
Muscle that extends the toes downward
Iliotibialis
Muscles that flexes and extends the hip
Latissiumus
Muscle that draws the humerus inward
Longissimus
Muscle that maintains bird posture
Obliquus
Muscle that flexes the abdomen
Pectoralis Major
Muscle that depresses the wing
Pectoalis Minor
Muscle that elevates the wing
Peroneus
Muscle that extends the foot outward
Pterlyarum
Muscle that moves the feathers
Sartorius
Muscle that flexes the knees and rotates the leg outward
Semitendinosus
Muscle that flexes the knee joints and extends the thigh
Teres Major
Muscle that rotates the humerus
Trapezius
Muscle that moves the scapula and draws the head left or right
Red
Color light that helps control cannibalism
Blue
Color light that is used for handling
Lower Larynx
The voice box in poultry
Syrinx
Another term for the lower larynx
Trachea
The tube that connects the upper and lower larynxes
Air Sacs
Moves air in and out of the lungs in poultry
Nucleated
Avain red blood cells are different than mammals in that they are _________
Omnivores
Are birds carnivores, herbivores, or omnivores?
Pointed
Chickens and turkeys have what shaped beaks because they are grain eaters?
Esophagus
Flexible tube that connects the mouth to crop
Crop
Stores and moistens food
Ingulvies
Another name for the crop
Proventriculus
Glandular stomach of the poultry
Pepsin
Enzyme in stomach to break down food
Gizzard
Muscular stomachs of chickens which grinds up the teeth
Ventriculus
Another term for gizzard