Chemistry: Introduction and Periodic Table GUHS

Introductory Chemistry Vocabulary
STUDY
PLAY
Atom
Tiniest part of matter
Mixture
two or more things physically combined.
Heterogeneous
mixture that you can see the different parts of
Homogeneous
mixture that looks the same throughout
elements
simplest type of matter. It can't be broken down further.
compound
two or more elements chemically combined. It has a formula.
Metal
These are found on the left side of the periodic table and are ductile, malleable and conductors
Nonmetal
These are found on the right side of the periodic table and are brittle and dull.
Luster
shiny
conductor
property electricity or heat can pass through
nonconductor
property that says heat and electricity can NOT pass through easily
malleable
property that says metals can be bent or shaped, flattened
ductile
property that says metals can be twisted into wires
brittle
property of nonmetals that explains why they shatter or break easily
left side
side of the periodic table where metals are located
right side
side of the periodic table where nonmetals are located
family
runs up and down on the periodic table and elements in them share characteristics or are similar. Another name for group
group
runs up and down on the periodic table and elements in them share characteristics or are similar. Another name for a family
period
runs across of the periodic table. Elements in them do NOT act similar.
chemistry
the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter
chemical
any substance that has a definite composition
mass
a measure of the amount of matter
matter
anything that takes up space and has mass
atom
the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
element
a pure substance made of only one kind of atom
compound
a substance that is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded
extensive properties
depend on the amount of matter that is present
intensive properties
do not depend on the amount of matter present
physical property
a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance
physical change
a change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identify of the substance
change of state
a physical change of a substance from one state to another
solid
matter is this state has a definite shape and definite volume
liquid
matter is this state has a definite volume but an indefinite shape
gas
matter in this state has neither a definite shape nor definite volume
plasma
a high temperature physical state of matter in which atoms lose their electrons
chemical property
relates to a substance's ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances
chemical change
a change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances. AKA - chemical reaction
reactants
the substances that react in a chemical change or reaction
products
the substances that are formed by the chemical change
mixture
a blend of two or more kinds of matter
homogeneous
a substance (mixture) that is uniform in compostion
solutions
homogeneous mixtures (can be solid, liquid or gas)
heterogeneous
a mixture that is not uniform throughout
pure substance
a substance with a fixed composition; every sample demonstrates the same properties
+2
The charge on a magnesium ion
+1
The charge on a sodium ion
-1
The charge on a fluorine ion
-2
The charge on a sulfur ion
ion
an atom that has gained or lost an electron
alpha
a radioactive particle stopped by paper
a helium nucleus
beta
a radioactove particle stopped by foil
can be negative or positive
gamma
radioactivity that is a wave - energy
helium
an alpha particle is like the nucleus of what element?
electron
what subatomic particle is a negative beta particle?
groups
Another word for the columns in the periodic table
periods
another name for rows of elements in a periodic table
1
what group is lithium in?
noble gases
What name is group 8A known by?
outer shell
Noble gases don't react because they have a full _____
covalent
A type of bonding that involves sharing electrons
nonmetals
covalent bonds only occur in...
2
How many fluorine ions would bond with a single magnesium ion?
double
covalent bonds with two pairs of electrons being shared are ____ bonds
fission
the splitting of an atom into smaller fragments
carbon
what element is used to date once-living things?
isotopes
atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons