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NGSS Biology First Semester Review
Terms in this set (15)
What are the requirements of being defined as "living" ?
All are made of one or more cells.
- All need energy for metabolism.
- All respond to their environment.
- All have DNA for reproduction and development
What is scientific method? What are the steps of scientific method?
Asking questions (stating problems or objectives)
• Doing research (gathering background information)
• Forming hypotheses (making a possible prediction)
• Confirming predictions with experiments
• Collecting and analyzing data
• Drawing conclusions
What are two kinds of observation? What is the difference between them?
a) involve measurements and numbers
b) ex: There are 2 windows and 36 chairs in this room.
a) do not involve measurements and numbers
b) ex: The chairs in this room are blue.
What is the difference between an observation and an inference? Make an example of each.
Observation = any information that can be gathered
from your five senses
Inference = conclusions made from observations that
try to explain those observations.
Observation = Bill is not in school today.
Inference = Maybe Bill is sick.
Observation = Mom is late for an hour.
Inference = She must be stuck in traffic.
What is the difference between a control group and an experimental group?
1. Control group
‐ the standard group; all conditions are kept the same.
2. Experimental group
‐ the test group; all conditions are kept the same
except the variable (or the condition being tested)
Define the following: hypothesis, theory, law.
Hypothesis: a tentative explanation that can be tested by further investigation.
Theory: a well-supported explanation of observations.
Scientific Law: a statement that summarizes the relationship between variables.
List the ecological levels of organization from the largest to the smallest.
Biosphere, biome, ecosystem, community, population, and individual.
What is a trophic level?
The feeding levels which shows how energy
flows in an ecosystem.
Which type of organism is always at the bottom of the ecological pyramid? Why?
Producers, because they produce and transfer energy.
What is the 10% rule?
10% of the energy is lost as heat as you move up the energy pyramid
Compare and contrast between a food chain and a food web.
A food chain is a model that shows a sequence of feeding relationships. A food web shows a complex network of feeding relationships and energy flow. A food web is made up of
interconnected food chains.
What is a niche?
The range of physical and biological conditions in which a species lives and the way the species obtains what it needs to survive and reproduce.
Compare and contrast between biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem. Give two examples of each.
1) Abiotic factors - nonliving components
of an ecosystem (sunlight, precipitation,
temperature, water, atmosphere etc)
2) Biotic factors - living
components of an ecosystem
Describe the symbiotic relationships in parasitism, mutualism, commensalism, competition, and predation.
- both organisms benefit from living together ☺☺
- one organism benefits, the other organism is harmed
- one organism benefits, the other organism is neither harmed nor benefits
What are the four major types of cycles in nature?
Nitrogen cycle, carbon cycle, water cycle, & photosynthesis.
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