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U.S. History Chapter 24 Test: Vietnam War
chapter 24 review study guide questions
Terms in this set (65)
IN 1946, Who did President Truman believe he should help fight in Vietnam as he considered them an ally against the spread of communism?
What was the Domino Theory?
United States belief that if Vietnam fell to communism, the rest of Southeast Asia would soon follow.
How did we assist France in 1954 against Vietnam?
United States was paying much of the cost of France's war effort
Why was France unsuccessful militarily in Vietnam even though the United States was funding their war effort?
Money and military equipment were of limited use against guerrilla warfare tactics.
Why was President Eisenhower not willing to fight in Vietnam?
United States just ended their fighting in the Korean War.
What happened at the Geneva Conference?
Cease fire was agreed upon in Vietnam after France surrendered.
Why was Vietnam divided into North Vietnam and South Vietnam?
1. China wanted to avoid a unified Vietnam
2. United States did not want Vietnam handed over to communism.
Why was President Kennedy eager to join the fight in Vietnam?
He wanted to improve his image as a leader after the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion.
What was the Tonkin Gulf Resolution of 1963?
gave President Johnson the authority to take all the necessary measures to stop any attack against forces of the United States.
What did President Johnson order in 1965?
Selective service to carry out the military draft notifying 13,700 draftees to join the combat.
What citizens were excused from the draft?
1. citizens with health conditions
2. students enrolled in colleges
3. young men from higher income families
Which citizens served in the most dangerous ground units?
African Americans and Hispanic Americans
What was Operation Rolling Thunder in 1965?
bombing campaign against northern military targets.
What was the key target the United States wanted to bomb?
Ho Chi Minh Trail (it was used by North Vietnam to bring weapons and supplies in South Vietnam)
What did President Johnson do in 1967?
broadened the air bombing to include strikes against Laos and much of South Vietnam.
How did the United States air bombing of 1967 affect South Vietnam?
Led many South Vietnamese troops to join the Vietcong causing the North Vietnamese to have more soldiers.
What did President Johnson counter North Vietnam with in 1967?
began a ground war in Vietnam increasing the number of troops from 185,000 to 486,000.
Why did increasing the number of soldiers not improve the results in battle?
Numbers can't defeat an enemy that attacks from everywhere (Ex peasants that appear peaceful)
What was the military strategy of the Vietcong?
1. peaceful peasants attack by day
2. Vietcong attack at night
What were search and destroy missions?
ground patrols would drive the Vietcong from their hideouts
Air support would kill them with snipers
What caused a decline in morale for the United States soldiers?
1. U.S. troops believed the Vietcong would be defeated quickly
2. Fighting an invisible foe with the will to continue fighting caused many casualities
How did television and the media affect the U.S. citizens' view of Vietnam?
television footage and reports of the war into people's homes seemed to contradict the government's reports.
What caused Americans to begin to doubt the war's progress?
reporters accused the government of inflating enemy body counts.
Who were hawks?
criticized the war was being fought
Who were doves?
against the war effort altogother
Who organized the first national antiwar demonstration on April 17, 1965?
Students for a Democratic Society
Why did Martin Luther King Jr. complain about the United States involvement in Vietnam?
he believed it was stealing resources from poverty programs.
How did President Johnson address antiwar protesters?
Johnson insisted that the United States was helping defend an ally against communist aggression.
What happened in 1968?
What was the Tet Offensive?
Vietcong guerrillas executed a carefully planned strike in Saigon and Da Nang while the South Vietnamese and U.S. allies slept.
Why were the South Vietnamese and United States forces asleep before the Tet Offensive?
It was agreed that there would be a ceasefire during the Vietnamese New Year. Vietcong violated the agreement.
How did the American public respond to the defeat at the Tet Offensive?
Citizens believed no part of South Vietnam was secure causing the public to call for the war to end.
How did the American public's criticism of the war effort affect President Johnson?
Johnson denied General Westmoreland's request for 206,000 more troops.
How did the Tet Offensive affect President Johnson's approval rating?
75% of Americans disapproved of Johnson's handling of the war.
How did Johnson's approval rating affect the 1968 presidential election?
Johnson declared that he would not seek reelection.
Who emerged as the frontrunner of the democratic party after Johnson decided not to seek reelection?
What happened in California in 1968 that affected the presidential election?
Robert Kennedy was shot.
Why was Richard Nixon able to win the 1968 election?
He told the voters he had a secret plan to end the Vietnam War.
What was Nixon's plan to end the war called?
What did Vietnamization involve?
turning over the fighting to the South Vietnamese while gradually pulling out the U.S. troops.
What did North Vietnam expect Nixon to do for peace negotiations to occur?
Nixon must set a date for troop removal
When did troop removal begin?
What did President Nixon do secretly in Vietnam?
expanded the Vietnam war by bombing Cambodia to cut off North Vietnamese supply lines.
How did the American public respond to the bombing of Cambodia?
students were outraged causing them to set fire to ROTC buildings on college campuses.
What did Congress do after they learned of the bombing of Cambodia?
cut off funds once U.S. troops withdrew
What were the Pentagon Papers of 1971?
leaked information that the government had misled the American people about the course of the war and identified that few South Vietnamese supported their government.
What did President Nixon do secretly after bombing Cambodia?
renewed the bombing of North Vietnam.
What did President Nixon do in 1972?
staged a major invasion of South Vietnam and ordered heavy bombing in North Vietnam.
Did Nixon's bombing efforts bring victory to the United States and South Vietnam?
What was the 26th amendment of 1971?
Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18.
Why was President Nixon reelected in 1972?
Nixon assured voters that the war would soon be over and Kissinger announced a breakthrough in the war effort.
What did North Vietnam offer to the United States in 1972?
What was involved in North Vietnam's peace agreement?
1. foreign troops would pull out of Vietnam
2. U.S. would end military aid
3. South Vietnam would receive a new government
Why did this peace agreement never happen?
North Vietnamese president was not at the negotiations and rejected the agreement.
How did Nixon respond to North Vietnam rejecting the peace agreement?
Nixon ordered round the clock bombing
When peace talks resumed in 1973, what were the conditions of the peace agreement?
1. U.S. forces withdraw from South Vietnam
2. U.S. help rebuild Vietnam
3. prisoner-exchange agreement
What happened 2 years after the peace agreement in Vietnam?
South Vietnam's government collapsed
What did North Vietnam do in 1975?
North Vietnam overran South Vietnam forcing South Vietnam to surrender.
Did the domino theory (predicted collapse of Southeast Asia) ever happen?
How were Vietnam veterans treated when they returned home?
veterans became targets of anger by citizens frustrated by the war.
How did the treatment of veterans affect them?
many veterans were unemployed or turned to drugs.
What happened to surviving soldiers sprayed by Agent Orange?
many soldiers developed cancer and their children had birth defects
What was the War Powers Act of 1973?
Affirmed Congress's constitutional right to declare war by setting a 60 day limit on the president's authority to send U.S. troops into foreign conflict.
How did the financial debt caused by the Vietnam War affect the economy?
spending on domestic programs was cut
What was repealed at the end of the Vietnam War?
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