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World History Human Legacy Modern Era Chapter 5
Terms in this set (46)
Polish cleric and astronomer who became interested in an old Greek idea that the sun stood at the center of the universe; studied planetary movements for more than 25 years. Didn't publish book until last year of life because he knew some of his formulas would be criticized.
Brought together astronomy, physics, and math. Developed calculus, which he used to predict the effects of gravity. Discovered law of gravity and laws of physics on objects.
Greek astronomer who expanded the geocentric theory in the second century A.D.
Life, Liberty and Property
three natural rights of all people, according to John Locke.
philosopher who believed that people could learn from experience and improve themselves, criticized absolute monarchy and favored the idea of self-government. If government fail to protect, can be overthrown
English statesman and writer who had a passionate interest in science; developed the experimental method. Only way to gain knowledge is by experimentation
French philosopher who was passionately committed to individual freedom; argued that civilization corrupted people's natural goodness. Believed people were BORN good.
exchange between society and government.
Demanded equal rights for women.
Everything should be doubted until proven with reason
Father of modern chemistry.
Father of anatomy. (dissected human bodies)
Came up with law of Conservation of Mass. Proved matter could not be created or destroyed. Invented first periodic table with 33 elements.
A monarch who retains absolute control of their country while also enacting reform based on Enlightenment ideas.
Frederick the Great
Enlightened despot; establish education for children, abolish torture, support most forms of religious tolerance
Catherine the Great
Enlightened despot; did not believe in equality of classes, just flirted with the ideas of enlightenment, dreamed of establishing law and order
Enlightened despot; eliminated death penalty and torture, gave free food and medicine to the poor.
Believed that all planets except earth revolve around sun; discovered supernovas; hired Kepler; wanted to prove Copernicus wrong.
a law stating that the orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the sun at center of solar system (proved Copernicus right in that solar system is heliocentric).
Wrote Declaration of Independence using Locke and Rousseau's ideas in the preamble. Believed men have inalienable rights, which government can't abuse.
Treaty of Paris
1783 - ended American Revolution. Agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent country. America gained land north of 31st parallel and east of Mississippi River.
1787. Created federal system of 3 branches of power. Founding principle = government exists for the people.
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Believed people are born selfish and need a strong central authority. Wrote "Leviathan".
1765, A tax that the British Parliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies.
Transformation in European though n the 1500s and 1600s that called for observation, experimentation, etc
Earth is center of universe sun and stars revolving around it
Sun is center of the universe, Earth rotating around the sun
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
Copernicus' cook with conclusions of finding, published last year of life
Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems
views of both Ptolemy and Copernicus, supported Copernicus
five step technique for acquiring new knowledge about the natural world based on observable evidence
Antony van Leeuwenhoek
invented the microscope
On the Fabric of the Human Heart
Observed and explained works of the human heart
On the Motion of the Heart
how blood and circulatory system functioned
The Skeptical Chymist
described matter as a cluster of tiny particles
exciting time of optimism and possibility
argued for freedom of speech and religion, criticized intolerance, prejudice, oppression
believed in separation of power
On the Spirit of the Laws
Montesquieu's book about his admiration for Great Britain's government
Cesare Bonesana Beccaria
criticized abuses in justice system
French and Indian War
France given up North American colonies
certain power are held by the federal government, other power for state government
American Bill of Rights
First 10 Amendments to the Constitution, protected natural rights
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