World History The Modern Era Chapter 6 Vocabulary


Terms in this set (...)

Ancien regime
a political and social system that no longer governs (especially the system that existed in France before the French Revolution)
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
A social class that derives social and economic power from employment, education, and wealth, as opposed to the inherited power of aristocratic family of titled land owners or feudal privileges. It's a term for the middle class common in the 19th century. It's characterized by their ownership of property and their related culture.
Deficit spending
Government practice of spending more than it takes in from taxes
Louis XVI
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Jacques Necker
A Swiss-born banker who served as France's director general of finance in the late 1770s, with high hopes of instituting reform. As it turned out, Necker was able only to propose small efforts at eliminating costly inefficiencies. He did produce a government budget, however, for the first time in French history.
Estates General
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
A report, especially one concerning the policy or proceedings of a parliamentary group
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.
Camille Desmoulins
French revolutionary leader and journalist who wrote pamphlets and journals to express his views on the revolution
Movement of people from rural areas to cities
A term the founders used to refer to political parties and special interests or interest groups.
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who joined General Washington's staff and became a general in the Continental Army.
French nobles who fled from France during the peasant uprisings. They were very conservative and hoped to restore the king to power.
Sans culotte
In the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages
Olympe de Gouges
1755-1793 wrote "The Rights of Women" and argued that the law must be an expression of the general will (men and women)
A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws.
Marie Antoinette
Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
In the first half of the 19th century, those Europeans who favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
A document drafted by the National Assembly promising all men their natural rights and the freedom of expression. No mechanism to enforce these rights
A legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US constitution
(1769-1821) Emperor of the French. Responsible for many French Revolution reforms as well as conquering most of Europe. He was defeated at Waterloo, and died several years later on the island of Saint Helena.
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
Reign of Terror
(1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed for "disloyalty"
A machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
French port city; troops marched to a patriotic song as they marched from this city, the song eventually became the French national anthem
Put into effect; carry out; to kill something
Georges Danton
French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror (1759-1794)
La Marseillaise
France's national anthem; became the rallying call of the French Revolution and received its name because it was first sung on the streets by volunteers from Marseille upon their arrival in Paris from invading Austrian and Prussian troops
The Third of May, 1808
Painting, Francisco de Goya (y Lucientes), 1814
A direct vote of all the people of a country or district on an important matter; a referendum
Napoleonic Code
A comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon
Join or merge territory into an existing political unit such as a country or state
Continental System
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
Guerilla Warfare
A type of fighting that involves small attacks against an enemy or the things it needs and uses
Scorched Earth Policy
Burning live stock and crops to prevent the enemy from living off the land
give up, such as power, as of monarchs and emperors, or duties and obligations
Congress of Vienna
(1814-1815 CE) Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.
A characterization of elections by political scientists meaning that they are almost universally accepted as a fair and free method of selecting political leaders.
Concert of Europe
A series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions
To expect beforehand
April 6, 1814
Napoleon is defeated