Chemistry: Chemical Bonding

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stable octet
a stable electron configuration consisting of 8 valence electrons
octet rule
atoms tend to react in order to achieve a stable octet (or sometimes duet)
electronegativity
a measurement of an atoms attraction for electrons
metallic bonding
metal-metal bonding, results in a "sea of electrons"
sea of electrons
the collection of independent, mobile electrons present in metallic substances. Motion between atoms is easy.
crystal lattice
a higly organized, regular geometric arrangement of atoms/ions
ionic bonding
transfer of electrons, between a metal and nonmetal
covalent bonding
sharing of electrons, between nonmetals
network solid
a covalently bonded 3-D network of atoms that resemble a crystal lattice, extremely hard (think diamond)
molecule
the smallest independent particle of an element or compound that exists
polar covalent bond
an unequal sharing of electrons in a covalent bond
nonpolar covalent bond
an equal sharing of electrons in a covalent bond
single covalent bond
one shared pair of electrons in a covalent bond
multiple covalent bond
more than one shared pair of electrons in a covalent bond
double bond
two shared pairs of electrons in a covalent bond
triple bond
three shared pairs of electrons in a covalent bond
molecular polarity
the overall charge distribution on a molecule
polar molecule
a molecule that has an overall unequal distribution of charge
dipole
another term for a polar molecule, = 2 poles
nonpolar molecule
a molecule that has an overall equal distribution of charge
intermolecular forces
a force of attraction that exists between molecules, IMF
dipole-dipole force
an IMF that exists between polar molecules, medium strength IMF
London dispersion forces
an IMF that exists between nonpolar molecules, created by temporary dipole formation, weakest IMF
hydrogen bonding
a special type of IMF that exists between a hydrogen on one molecule and a F,O,or N an another molecule, strongest IMF
ionic properties
high melting points, soluble in water, no odor, usually solid, hard, conducts electricity
covalent properties
lower melting points, solid liquid or gas, softer, doesn't conduct electricity
ionic compound
compound that consists of positive and negative ions; i.e. sodium chloride
alloy
solid solutions made by dissolving metals in other metals
ion
An atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge
anion
An ion with a negative charge
cation
An ion with a positive charge
intramolecular force
an attraction between particles or atoms that make up a molecule or compound (ionic / covalent bonds - also known as interparticle force)
electrostatic attraction
intramolecular or interparticle force that helps form ionic bonds between cations & anions
Lattice energy
measure of the strength of bonds in that ionic compound.
Covalent Compound
Soft, low melting and boiling point, does not conduct electricity well
Ionic Compound
Hard, high melting and boiling point, does conduct electricity when in liquid (molten) or aqueous (dissolved) forms