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Rounded depression, or socket, in the pelvis that joins the femur (thigh bone) forming the hip joint. Common Name: Hip Socket
outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder. It overlies the shoulder joint and articulates with the clavicle
dense, hard connective tissue composing the skeleton. IE: long bones (femur), short bones (carpals), flat bones (scapula) and sesamoid bones (patella)
one of the mineral constituents of bone. Calcium phosphate is the major calcium salt in bones
flexible, rubbery connective tissue. It is found in the immature skeleton, at the epiphyseal growth plate, and on joint surfaces.
flat, round, pate-like structure. An intervertebral disk is a fibrocartilaginous substance between two vertebrae.
cartilageinous area at the end of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton
opening or passage in bones where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave. The foramen magnum is the opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes
round process on both sides of the ankle joint. The lateral malleolus is part of the fibula, and the medial malleolus is part of the tibia
flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis (shaft_ and the epiphyseal plate (in this term, meta-means between)
area of confluence (coming together_ of the two pubic bones in the pelvis. They are joined (sym=together, -physis= to grow) by a fibrocartilaginous disk
twelve pairs of curved bones that form the chest wall. True ribs are the first 7 pairs; false ribs are pairs 8-10; floating ribs are pairs 11 and 12
pole-like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull
connection on either side of the head between the temporal bone of the the skull and manibular bone of the jaw.
large process at the neck of the femur; attachment site for tendons of the hip musculature
individual segment of the spine composed of the vertebral body, vertebral arch, spinous process, transverse process, and lamina, enclosing the neural canal
vertebra IE: spndylosis- degeneration of the intervertebral disks in the cervical thoracic and lumbar regions. Signs and symptoms include pain and restriction of movement
softening IE: osteomalacia= a condition in which vitamin D deficiency leads to decalcification of bones; known as rickets in children
malleolus (process on each side of the ankle) IE: malleolar= the medial malleolus is at the distant end of the tibia, and the lateral malleolus is at the distal end of the fibula
Bony growth (benign) arising from the surface of bone (ex-means out, -ostosis means condition of bone)
bone is splintered or crushed into several pieces. A simple fracture means that a bone breaks in only one place and is therefore not comminuted
bone collapses or is compressed, as may happen to vertebrae in osteoporosis or with traumatic injury
bone is partially broken; it breaks on one surface and only bends on the other, as when a small tree branch breaks; occurs in children.
congenital abnormality of the hindfoot (involving the talus) IE: the most common form is talipes equinovarus or clubfoot. The infant cannot stand with the sole of the foot flat on the ground. The defect can be corrected by applying orthopedic casts in the early months of infancy or, if that fails, by surgery.
connective tissue binding bones to other bones; supports, strengthens, and stabilizes the joint
space between bones at a synovial joint; contains synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane.
viscous (sticky) fluid within the synovial cavity. Synovial fluid is similar in viscosity to egg white; this accounts for the origin of the term (syn-=like, ov/o=egg)
chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffening of joints, primarily of the spine
gouty arthritis (gout)
inflammation and painful swelling of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the body
progressive, degenrative joint disease with loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone (formation of osteophytes, or bone spurs) at articular surfaces
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
chronic joint condition with inflammation and pain; caused by an autoimmune reaction against joint tissue, particularly the synovial membrane.
enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe (metatarsophalageal joint)
carpal tunnel syndrome
compression of the median nerve as it passes between the ligament and the bones and tendons of the wrist
herniation of an intervertebral disk (disc)
abnormal protrusion of an intervertebral disk into the spinal canal or spinal nerves
lyme disease (lyme arthritis)
disorder marked by arthritis, myalgia, and malaise; cause is a bacterium carried by a tick
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, nervous system (CNS), heart, and lungs
makes up the voluntary or skeletal muscles that move all bones, as well as controlling facial expression and eye movements.
makes up the involuntary or visceral muscles that move internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels, and secretory ducts leading from the glands
is striated in appearance but is like smooth muscle in its action. It's movements cannot be consciously controlled.
circular movement around an axis (central point). internal rotation is toward the midline and external rotation is away from the midline
decreasing the angle of the ankle joint so that the foot bends backward (upward). This is the opposite movement of stepping on the gas pedal when driving a car
motion that extends the foot downward toward the ground as when pointing the toes or stepping on the gas pedal.
as applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm up. as applied to the foot, it is outward roll of the foot during normal motion
as applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm down. As applied to the foot, it is inward roll of the foot during normal motion.
group of inherited disease characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers without involvement of the nervous system
antinuclear antibody test
detects an antibody present in serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
measure time it takes for erythrocytes to settle to the bottom of a test tube
rheumatoid factor test
serum is tested for the presence of an antibody found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
bone density test (bone densitometry)
low-energy x-ray absorption in bones of the spinal column, pelvis, and wrist is used to measure bone mass.
x-ray examination of cervical or lumbar intervertebral disk after injection of contrast into nucleus pulposus (interior of thee disk)
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