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213 terms

Ch. 15- Musculoskeletal system- Davi-Ellen Chabner

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Acetabulum
Rounded depression, or socket, in the pelvis that joins the femur (thigh bone) forming the hip joint. Common Name: Hip Socket
Calcaneus
Common Name: Heel
Carpals
Common Name: Wrist Bones
Clavicle
Common Name: Collar Bone
Coccyx
Common Name: Tailbone
Cranium
Common Name: Skull
Femur
Common Name: Thigh Bone
Fibula
Common Name: Smaller of the two lower leg bones
Humerus
Common Name: Upper arm bone
Ilium
Common Name: upper part of pelvic bone
Ischium
Common Name: posterior part of the pelvic bone
Malleolus
Common Name: Ankle
Mandible
Common Name: Lower jawbone
Maxilla
Common Name: Upper jawbone
Metacarpals
Common Name: Hand bones
Metatarsals
Common Name: Midfoot bones
Olecranon
Common Name: Elbow
Patella
Common Name: Kneecap
Phalanges
Common Name: Finger and toe bones
Pubis
Common Name: Anterior part of the pelvic bone
Radius
Common Name: Forearm bone- thumb side
scapula
Common Name: shoulder blade
sternum
Common Name: breastbone
tarsals
Common Name: hindfoot bones
Tibia
Common Name: shin bone- larger of the two lower leg bones
Ulna
Common Name: Forearm bone- little finger side
Vertebra
Common Name: Backbone/spine
Acromion
outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder. It overlies the shoulder joint and articulates with the clavicle
Articular Cartilage
Thin layer of cartilage covering the bone in the joint space
Bone
dense, hard connective tissue composing the skeleton. IE: long bones (femur), short bones (carpals), flat bones (scapula) and sesamoid bones (patella)
calcium
one of the mineral constituents of bone. Calcium phosphate is the major calcium salt in bones
cancellous bone
spongy, porous, bone tissue in the inner part of the bone
cartilage
flexible, rubbery connective tissue. It is found in the immature skeleton, at the epiphyseal growth plate, and on joint surfaces.
collagen
Dense, connective tissue protein strands found in bone and other tissues
compact bone
hard, dense bone tissue, usually found around the outer portion of bones
condyle
knuckle-like process at the end of a bone near the joint
cranial bones
skull bones: ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal,, sphenoid, and temporal
diaphysis
shaft, or mid-portion, of a long bone
disk (disc)
flat, round, pate-like structure. An intervertebral disk is a fibrocartilaginous substance between two vertebrae.
epiphyseal plate
cartilageinous area at the end of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton
facial bones
bones of the face: lacrimal, mandibular, maxillary, nasal, vomer, and zygomatic
fissure
narrow, slit-like opening in or between bones
fontanelle
soft spot (incomplete bone formation) between the skull bones of an infant
foramen
opening or passage in bones where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave. The foramen magnum is the opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes
fossa
shallow cavity in a bone
haversian canals
minute spaces filled with blood vessels; found in compact bone
malleolus
round process on both sides of the ankle joint. The lateral malleolus is part of the fibula, and the medial malleolus is part of the tibia
manubrium
upper portion of the sternum; articulates with the medial aspect of the clavicle
mastoid process
round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear
medullary cavity
central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone
metaphysis
flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis (shaft_ and the epiphyseal plate (in this term, meta-means between)
olecranon
large process on the proximal end of the ulna; the point of the flexed elbow
osseous tissue
bone tissue
ossification
process of the bone formation
osteoblast
bone cell that helps form bony tissue
osteoclast
bone cell that absorbs and removes unwanted bony tissue
periosteum
membrane surrounding bones; rich in blood vessels and nerve tissue
phosphorus
mineral substance found in bones in combination with calcium
pubic symphysis
area of confluence (coming together_ of the two pubic bones in the pelvis. They are joined (sym=together, -physis= to grow) by a fibrocartilaginous disk
red bone marrow
found in cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis
ribs
twelve pairs of curved bones that form the chest wall. True ribs are the first 7 pairs; false ribs are pairs 8-10; floating ribs are pairs 11 and 12
sella turcica
depression in the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located
sinus
hollow air cavity within a bone
styloid process
pole-like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull
suture
immovable joint between bones, such as the skull (cranium)
temporomandibular joint
connection on either side of the head between the temporal bone of the the skull and manibular bone of the jaw.
trabeculae
supporting bundles of bony fibers in cancellous (spongy ) bone
trochanter
large process at the neck of the femur; attachment site for tendons of the hip musculature
tubercle
rounded, small process on bone; attachment site for muscles and tendons
tuberosity
rounded process on bone; attachment site for muscles and tendons
vertebra
individual segment of the spine composed of the vertebral body, vertebral arch, spinous process, transverse process, and lamina, enclosing the neural canal
xiphoid process
lower, narrow portion of the sternum
yellow bone marrow
fatty tissue found in the medullary cavity of most adult long bones
calc/o, calci/o
calcium
kyph/o
humpback, hunchback (posterior curvature in the thoracic region)
lamin/o
lamina (part of the vertebral arch)
lord/o
curve, swayback (anterior curvature in the lumbar region)
lumb/o
loins, lower back
myel/o
bone marrow
orth/o
straight
oste/o
bone
scoli/o
crooked, bent (lateral curvature)
spondyl/o
vertebra IE: spndylosis- degeneration of the intervertebral disks in the cervical thoracic and lumbar regions. Signs and symptoms include pain and restriction of movement
vertebr/o
vertebra
-blast
embryonic or immature cell
-clast
to break
-listhesis
slipping
-malacia
softening IE: osteomalacia= a condition in which vitamin D deficiency leads to decalcification of bones; known as rickets in children
-physis
to grow IE: epiphysis
-porosis
pore, passage IE: osteoporosis- loss of bony tissue with decreased mass of bone
-tome
instrument to cut IE: osteotome- this surgical chisel is designed to cut bone
acetabul/o
acetabulum (hip socket) IE: acetabular
calcane/o
calcaneus (heel) IE: calcaneal
carp/o
carpals (wrist bones)
clavicul/o
clavicle (collar bone) IE: supraclavicular= means above collar bone
cost/o
ribs (true ribs, false ribs, and floating ribs) IE: subcostal
crani/o
cranium (skull) IE: craniotomy, craniotome
femor/o
femur (thigh bone) IE: femoral
fibul/o
fibula (smaller lower leg bone) IE: fibular
humer/o
humerus (upper arm bone) IE: humeral
ili/o
ilium (upper part of pelvic bone)
ischi/o
ischium (posterior part of pelvic bone) IE: ischial
malleol/o
malleolus (process on each side of the ankle) IE: malleolar= the medial malleolus is at the distant end of the tibia, and the lateral malleolus is at the distal end of the fibula
mandibul/o
mandible (lower jawbone)
maxill/o
maxilla (upper jawbone)
metacarp/o
metacarpals (hand bone)
metatars/o
metatarsals (foot bones) IE: metatarsalgia
olecran/o
olecranon (elbow) olecranal
patell/o
patella (kneecap)
pelv/i
pelvis (hipbone)
perone/o
fibula
phalang/o
phalanges (finger and/or toe bones)
pub/o
pubis (anterior part of the pelvic bone)
radi/o
radius (forearm bone- thumbside) IE: radial
scapul/o
scapula (shoulder blade)
stern/o
sternum (breastbone)
tars/o
tarsals (bones of the hindfoot)
tibi/o
tibia (shin bone)
uln/o
ulna (forearm bone-little finger side
Ewing carcoma
Rare malignant tumor arising in bone; most often occurring in children
exostosis
Bony growth (benign) arising from the surface of bone (ex-means out, -ostosis means condition of bone)
fracture
traumatic breaking of a bone
Colles fracture
occurs near the wrist joint at the distal end of the radius
Comminuted fracture
bone is splintered or crushed into several pieces. A simple fracture means that a bone breaks in only one place and is therefore not comminuted
compression fracture
bone collapses or is compressed, as may happen to vertebrae in osteoporosis or with traumatic injury
greenstick fracture
bone is partially broken; it breaks on one surface and only bends on the other, as when a small tree branch breaks; occurs in children.
impacted fracture
one fragment is driven firmly into the other.
osteogenic sarcoma - (osteosarcoma)
common malignant tumor arising from osteoblasts
osteomalacia
softening of bone, with inadequate amounts of mineral (calcium) in the bone
osteomyelitis
inflammation of the bone and bone marrow secondary to infection
osteoporosis
decrease in bone density (mass); thinning an weakening of bone.
talipes
congenital abnormality of the hindfoot (involving the talus) IE: the most common form is talipes equinovarus or clubfoot. The infant cannot stand with the sole of the foot flat on the ground. The defect can be corrected by applying orthopedic casts in the early months of infancy or, if that fails, by surgery.
articular cartilage
smooth, glistening white tissue that covers the surface of a joint
articulation
any type of joint
bursa
sac of fluid near a joint; promotes smooth sliding of one tissue against another
ligament
connective tissue binding bones to other bones; supports, strengthens, and stabilizes the joint
suture joint
immovable joint, such as between the bones of the skull
synovial cavity
space between bones at a synovial joint; contains synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane.
synovial fluid
viscous (sticky) fluid within the synovial cavity. Synovial fluid is similar in viscosity to egg white; this accounts for the origin of the term (syn-=like, ov/o=egg)
synovial joint
a freely movable joint
synovial membrane
tissue lining the synovial cavity; it produces synovial fluid
tendon
connective tissue that binds muscles to bones
ankyl/o
stiff
arthr/o
joint
articul/o
joint
burs/o
bursa
chondr/o
cartilage
ligament/o
ligament
rheumat/o
watery flow
synov/o
synovial
ten/o
tendon
tendin/o
tendon
-desis
to bind, tie together
-stenosis
narrowing
ankylosing spondylitis
chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffening of joints, primarily of the spine
gouty arthritis (gout)
inflammation and painful swelling of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the body
osteoarthritis (OA)
progressive, degenrative joint disease with loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone (formation of osteophytes, or bone spurs) at articular surfaces
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
chronic joint condition with inflammation and pain; caused by an autoimmune reaction against joint tissue, particularly the synovial membrane.
bunion
enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe (metatarsophalageal joint)
carpal tunnel syndrome
compression of the median nerve as it passes between the ligament and the bones and tendons of the wrist
dislocation
displacement of a bone from its joint
ganglion
fluid-filled cyst arising from joint capsules or tendons, typically in the hand
herniation of an intervertebral disk (disc)
abnormal protrusion of an intervertebral disk into the spinal canal or spinal nerves
lyme disease (lyme arthritis)
disorder marked by arthritis, myalgia, and malaise; cause is a bacterium carried by a tick
sprain
trauma to a joint without rupture
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, nervous system (CNS), heart, and lungs
Striated muscle
makes up the voluntary or skeletal muscles that move all bones, as well as controlling facial expression and eye movements.
smooth muscle
makes up the involuntary or visceral muscles that move internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels, and secretory ducts leading from the glands
cardiac muscle
is striated in appearance but is like smooth muscle in its action. It's movements cannot be consciously controlled.
flexion
decreasing the angle between two bones; bending a limb
extension
increasing the angle between two bones; straightening out a limb
abduction
movement away from the midline of the body
adduction
movement toward the midline of the body
rotation
circular movement around an axis (central point). internal rotation is toward the midline and external rotation is away from the midline
dorsiflexion
decreasing the angle of the ankle joint so that the foot bends backward (upward). This is the opposite movement of stepping on the gas pedal when driving a car
plantar flexion
motion that extends the foot downward toward the ground as when pointing the toes or stepping on the gas pedal.
supination
as applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm up. as applied to the foot, it is outward roll of the foot during normal motion
pronation
as applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm down. As applied to the foot, it is inward roll of the foot during normal motion.
visceral musclee
muscle connected to internal organs; involuntary or smooth muscle
fasci/o
fascia (forms sheaths enveloping muscles)
fibr/o
fibrous connective tissue
Ieiomy/o
smooth (visceral) muscle that lines the walls of internal organs
my/o
muscle
myocardi/o
heart muscle
myos/o
muscle
plant/o
sole of the foot
rhabdomy/o
skeletal (striated) muscle connected to bones
sarc/o
muscle and flesh
-asthenia
lack of strength
-trophy
development, nourishment
ab-
away from
ad-
toward
dorsi-
back
poly-
many, much
muscular dystrophy
group of inherited disease characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers without involvement of the nervous system
polymyositis
chronic inflammatory myopathy
antinuclear antibody test
detects an antibody present in serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
measure time it takes for erythrocytes to settle to the bottom of a test tube
rheumatoid factor test
serum is tested for the presence of an antibody found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
serum calcium
measurement of calcium level in serum
serum creeatine kinase
measurement of the enzyme creatine kinase in serum
uric acid test
measurement of uric acid in serum
arthrocentesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid from the joint space
arthrography
taking x-ray images after injection of contrast material into a joint
arthroplasty
surgical repair or replacement of a joint
arthroscopy
visual examination of a joint with an arthroscope and television camera
bone density test (bone densitometry)
low-energy x-ray absorption in bones of the spinal column, pelvis, and wrist is used to measure bone mass.
bone scan
uptake of a radioactive substance is measured in bone
computed tomography
x-ray beam and computer provide cross-sectional and other images
diskography
x-ray examination of cervical or lumbar intervertebral disk after injection of contrast into nucleus pulposus (interior of thee disk)
electromyography
recording the strength of muscle contraction as a result of electrical stimulation
magnetic resonance imaging
a magnetic field creates images of soft tissue
muscle biopsy
removal of muscle tissue for microscopic examination