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English 12 - 1st Semester Study Guide
Terms in this set (47)
Celtic Religion; no after life, Spirits were everywhere, tone of darkness
Celtic tribe that made Britain
55 B.C. Julius Caesar invades Britain bringing laws, customs, language, government, security, Christianity until 409 A.D. when Rome pulls out and the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes invade in 449 A.D.
Name given by Anglo-Saxons that turns into England
Virtues and Characteristics of Anglo Saxons
Repetition of initial consonant sounds
A metaphoric compound word or phrase used as a synonym for a common noun
A long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds
Anglo Social Life
Mead hall - center of social life
Entertainers - Scops or bards; kept oral tradition
King Alfred the Great
united Angles and Saxons to defeat vikings, spread Christianity, Anglo-Saxon chronicle
Christian monks settle in Britain to co-exist with Anglo-Saxon culture
British pagan religions replaced by Christianity
Norman invasion of England
1066; William of Normandy defeats Harold and French replaces English
The Middle Ages
1066-1485; Edward the confessor dies with no heir leaving Harold and William to fight for the throne
William the Conqueror
duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England
Great administrative ability, Law and Order, Cultural unity
A record of all the property and holdings in England commissioned by William the Conqueror in 1066 so he could determine the extent of his lands and wealth
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
members of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyalty
Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages
new genre of literature inspired by the legends of Chivalrous knights
Song like poems that tell a story, often dealing with adventure and romance
stories associated with the deeds and lives of the mythical King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table
A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.
(1215) a charter of liberties (freedoms) that King John "Lackland" of Englad was forced to sign; it made the king obey the same laws as the citizens of his kingdom
Decline of Feudalism
the weakening of the economic and political system that developed in Europe during the Middle Ages; monetary system, Black death
The Black Death
A deadly plague that took 1/3 of Europe's population between 1347 and 1351
the archbishop of Canterbury, close friend of Henry who later opposed his attempt to bring Church/clergy into royal court system. Murdered by Henry's knights, then declare a saint by the Church
The Hundred Years' War
War between France and Britain, lasted 116 years, mostly a time of peace, but it was punctuated by times of brutal violence (1337 to 1453)
English poet remembered as author of the Canterbury Tales (1340-1400); father of Modern English and English Poetry
The Canterbury Tales
A collection of stories written in Middle-English by Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century. The tales are told as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey .
Three classes in the Canterbury tales
Feudalistic (Knights, Squire), Ecclesiastical (Nun, Friar, Monk), Middle/Working(Wife of Bath, Cook, Skipper) Knight, Parson, and Plowman were consider Virtuous
(1485 - 1660) "rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
1455: Develops movable metal type, makes printing feasible
- 1st mass produced written word
- 1st Printing press by modifying a winepress.
King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Wives of Henry VIII
divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
(1547-1553) King Henry VIII's only son. Sickly, and became King at 9 years old. Since he wasn't capable of governing his country the Protestant church was soon brought in through his advisors Cromwell and Cranmer. Dies from TB
Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary)
Took the English throne in 1553. She was the oldest daughter of Henry VIII, part of the Tudor family, and a devoted Catholic. Married to Philip II of Spain. Helped lead Counter-Reformation against Protestantism. Her goal was to return Britain to the Catholic Church. Nicknamed Bloody Mary because of the 300 Protestants she killed during her reign. Died with no heirs to the throne.
(1533-1603) Queen of England and Ireland between 1558 and 1603. She was an absolute monarch and is considered to be one of the most successful rulers of all time.
Mary Queen of Scots
Catholic relative to Protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England. She allegedly plotted with Spain's Philip II to overthrow Elizabeth and reassert Catholicism in England. Elizabeth had her beheaded.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
1588 by Elizabeth 1 of England, English naval supremacy.
(1603-1625) Stuart monarch who ignored constitutional principles and asserted the divine right of kings.
Britain's law-making assembly ruled
(1625-1649) Stuart king who brought conflict with Parliament to a head and was subsequently executed.
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