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Terms in this set (8)
A disorder in which individuals experience unwarranted fear or dread, including the belief that they are in immediate danger or will die despite no objective basis for this belief. Examples are panic attacks, specific phobias (such as fear of heights, enclosed or open places, snakes), obsessive-compulsive disorder (intrusive unwanted thoughts accompanied typically by the need to carry out rituals to mitigate the anxiety), social phobia. Usually the anxiety in these cases is slow to habituate or extinguish and can cause individuals to avoid otherwise normal activities in which these fears may be engendered.
Canalization is a concept introduced by Waddington intended to explain why some phenotypic targets during development are almost always reached. The term is a metaphor referring the depth of the "grooves" in the epigenetic landscape which act as genetic buffers insuring some traits will develop even if genetic mutations occur or development occurs in abnormal environments. These processes insure that some developmental pathways are followed and others are not in most cases. Phenotypic characters can be canalized for or against. Phenotypic characters which are strongly canalized for include the development of the heart on the left side, the normal wing vein pattern in fruitflies and the body segmentation patterns of vertebrates and invertebrates.
COMPARE PROCEDURAL AND DECLARATIVE MEMORY
Procedural (or implicit) memories are memories we are not aware of accessing. These are motor skills such as threading a needle, riding a bicycle, operating a motor vehicle and signing our names. Acquisition of these skills usually rely on the functioning of the basal ganglia system and cerebellum. Declarative (or explicit) memories are memories we are aware of accessing such as episodic, semantic, spatial and generic memories. Acquisition of these memories requires the hippocampus and associated structures in the limbic system.
Cajal-Retizius neurons are transient cortical neurons which migrate laterally into the embryonic cortical plate from the lateral ganglionic eminence. These neurons enter layer 1 of the embryonic cortex before other neurons migrate and secrete the protein reelin. Reelin promotes disaggregation of radially migrating neuroblasts which originate in the ventricular zone and follow radial glial cell processes. Reelin also promotes continued growth of cortical radial glial fibers so that these continue to grow in embryonic life until they reach the edge of the cortical plate.
FILOPODIUM OF GROWTH CONE
The filopodium is the terminal end of a growth cone. The growth cone is a pioneering fiber which will ultimate develop into a mature axon after synapse formation. The filopodium is the slender extension of the fiber which usually terminates in finger like extensions. After synapse formation the filopodium of the growth cone will become a bouton or mature nerve terminal. The bouton usually contains neurotransmitter vesicles and TRK receptor binding sites for neurotrophins released by the postsynaptic element of the synapse.
HYPOFRONTALITY THEORY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
This theory holds that schizophrenia is a neurodegenerative disease in which neurons in the frontal and often the temporal lobes degenerate. The degeneration may begin in childhood, but the symptoms may not become manifest until late adolescence or early adulthood. Loss of prefrontal neurons can dysregulate the mesolimbic dopamine pathway because frontal lobe neurons control the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and also project to the dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area. This dysregulation may produce positive schizophrenic symptoms such as paranoia as well as negative symptoms such as flattened affect. Loss of temporal lobe neurons may also contribute the auditory hallucinations typical of schizophrenia.
OCD is an anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and the carrying out of rituals which temporarily reduce the anxiety (compulsions). Typical obsessions include fear of contamination by germs, unwarranted guilt feelings, the need to mentally count or modify thinking. Typical compulsions include hand washing, cleaning, counting and checking rituals. Individuals possessing two copies of the short promotor allele for the SERT gene are at increased risk of developing this disorder.
Motoneuron diseases are degenerative diseases in which lower and usually upper motoneurons degenerate. The most common variant is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Loss of lower motoneurons causes muscles to waste and fasciculate. Upper motor neurons in the motor and premotor cortex project to lower motoneurons and also degenerate. There are usually few cognitive losses in these disorders. Loss of spinal motoneurons bring about loss of control over the hands and feet and eventual paralysis. Loss of brainstem motoneurons affects eye movements, chewing, swallowing and speech. Eventually patients require a respirator for breathing since control of these muscles are also affected.
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