American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).
Rip Van Winkle
story that describes a man who falls asleep during the time of American Revolution and he wakes up 20 years later to society he doesn't recognize
an election option that enables voters to pass laws themselves without the state legislature
she will take office in January as the member of Congress from California's 25th Congressional district
"Flip the House"
when the House of Representatives changes hands from one political party to another
the decision at the Constitutional convention to count slaves as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of deciding the population and determining how many seats each state would have in Congress
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
Constitution's ban on the int'l slave trade
20 years after the Constitution was ratified--a compromise that said that after 20 years Atlantic slave trade would end
An essay composed by James Madison which argues that liberty is safest in a large republic because many interests (factions) exist. Such diversity makes tyranny by the majority more difficult since ruling coalitions will always be unstable.
an essay that argues that separation of powers within the national government is the best way to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of one person or a single group.
an essay that argues that Supreme Court Justices should have their jobs for life; the Courts lack the power of the purse or sword; can't tax, enforce laws, or bring the nation to war
The Federalist Papers
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.
A government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state governments
powers that are held by both state and national governments
The constitutional amendment that establishes the four great liberties: freedom of the press, of speech, of religion, and of assembly.
Right to keep and bear arms
The government may not house soldiers in private homes without consent of the owner
Protects against unreasonable search and seizure
A constitutional amendment designed to protect the rights of persons accused of crimes, including protection against double jeopardy, self-incrimination, and punishment without due process of law.
A constitutional amendment designed to protect individuals accused of crimes. It includes the right to an attorney, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a speedy and public trial.
The constitutional amendment that forbids cruel and unusual punishment and excessive bail
Article I of the Constitution
Establishes Congress as the legislative branch of Federal Government and lists the powers of Congress.
Article II of the Constitution
This article describes the role and power of the Executive Branch. The President and Vice President.
Article III of the Constitution
creates the Supreme Court and allows Congress to establish lower courts.
13th Amendment (1865)
Abolishes and prohibits slavery
15th Amendment (1870)
States cannot deny any person the right to vote because of race.
19th Amendment (1920)
Gave women the right to vote
26th Amendment (1971)
18 year olds gain the right to vote
"I do not consent to searches"
one way to exercise your Fourth Amendment rights if you are stopped on the street by police
"are you detaining me or am I free to go"
a phrase you can use if you believe police have no good reason to keep or arrest you
"I can't let you in without a warrant"
a phrase you can use to exercise your Fourth Amendment rights if police arrive at your home
Morse v. Frederick
First Amendment Supreme Court case; the Court ruled against the student saying he did not have the right to hold up a sign saying "Bong Hits 4 Jesus" at a school-sponsored event
Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)
Public school students may wear armbands to class protesting against America's war in Vietnam when such display does not disrupt classes; protects students' right to political speech
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
The court ruled that those subjected to in-custody interrogation be advised of their constitutional right to an attorney and their right to remain silent.
Schenck v. United States
A 1919 decision upholding the conviction of a socialist who had urged young men to resist the draft during World War I. Justice Holmes declared that government can limit speech if the speech provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils.
Kyllo v. United States (2001)
law enforcement officials cannot examine a home with a thermal-imaging device unless they obtain a warrant
isolated and hidden away
a feeling that something bad will happen
an entrance, door or gate
an election that takes place in the middle of a presidential term
Father of the Constitution
a lawmaking body made up of two chambers or parts
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
Opponents of the American Constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption.
one of nations first political parties, led by Thomas Jefferson and stemming from the anti-federalists, emerged around 1792, gradually became today's Democratic party. The Jeffersonian republicans were pro-French and mostly made up of the middle class. They favored a weak central govt., and strong states' rights.
Bank of the United States
Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan.
A tax on imported goods
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
This document declared that no person could be forced to attend a particular church or be required to pay for a church with tax money.
Hamilton's Financial Plan
Pay off all war debts, raise government revenues, create a national bank, impose tariffs and excise taxes
Consumer tax on a specific kind of merchandise, such as tobacco or whiskey
the rights and powers held by individual US states rather than by the federal government.
Necessary and Proper Clause
Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government
false statements that damage another's reputation
to disagree, especially with the majority, or with an authority
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