U.S. History Chapter 25 Test: Nixon to Carter
chapter 25 review study guide questions
Terms in this set (83)
Where did most of Nixon's support come from?
middle-class voters (Silent Majority)
What did Nixon do to gain the support of the middle class?
restored law and order
cut back on Democratic programs
Why did Nixon want to cut back on Great Society programs?
they failed to decrease poverty
What did Nixon believe about social programs?
they made people dependent on the government
What did Nixon replace welfare programs with?
Family Assistance Plan (FAP)
What was the Family Asistance Plan?
guaranteed families a minimum income
Adults able to work would be required to accept job training or work assignments
Did the Senate support Nixon's Family Assistance Plan?
No, the Senate voted it down
What was New Federalism?
government gave block grants to the states who would then decide how to use the money.
How did Nixon get the support of conservative Southerners?
Nixon opposed any civil rights legislation
What contributed to the recession and high unemployment of the 1970's?
1. heavy spending on social programs
2. spending on Vietnam
How did Nixon address inflation in 1971?
temporary freezes on prices, rents, and wages
What happened when Nixon began to ease the controls in 1972?
inflation increased again
What was the United States economy dependent on during the 1970's?
Oil from foreign nations
What did Arab nations do to the United States for showing support to Israel?
cut off America's oil supply
How did Arab nations cutting off the U.S. oil supply affect the economy?
oil prices increased leading to an energy crisis
What did Nixon do to address the energy crisis?
1. lowered the speed limit to 55 mph
2. constructed pipeline to transport oil from Alaska
3. encouraged use of nuclear energy
How did the use of oil concern the American public?
America was concerned over the environment
What was created in 1970 to address environmental issues?
Environmental Protection Agency
What did the Environmental Protection Agency enforce?
What was the Clean Air Act of 1970?
set air quality standards for automobile industries
What was the Water Quality Improvement Act of 1970?
required oil companies to pay for cleanup costs of oil spills
What was the Endangered Species Act of 1973?
protected wildlife in danger of extinction
What did Nixon believe should guide United States foreign policy?
Who did President Nixon want to improve foreign relations with?
What did Nixon do with China?
1. developed trade relations
2. promised troop withdrawal from Taiwan
Why did Nixon visit Russia in 1972?
signed a treaty limiting nuclear weapons that travel long distances (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)
Why did Nixon intervene in Chile in 1970 because Salvador Allende, Socialist, became president?
Nixon feared that Chile would turn into another Cuba allied with the Soviet Union.
What did Nixon do in Chile?
1. cut off foreign aid to Chile
2. instructed the CIA to disrupt politics in Chile.
What mistakes did Nixon make in his first timer?
1. acted as though there were no limits to his powers
How did Nixon work with Congress?
hid information from Congress as he shifted his authority to his cabinet.
What did Nixon order his staff to compile in 1971?
an enemies list of critics who opposed his policies
Who were the plumbers?
group organized by Nixon to carry out illegal actions in the name of national security.
What did Nixon do in 1972?
launched a full-scale effort to ensure Nixon's re-election
What did Nixon do in 1972 that led to his impeachment?
Members of Nixon's administration were caught breaking into the offices of the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate Office.
Did President Nixon win his reelection campaign in 1972?
Yes, by a landslide
What did CIA agent, James McCord admit in 1973?
White House officials helped plan the Watergate break-in.
Did President Nixon admit to being involved in the Watergate Scandal?
No, he denied the cover-up
What did the Justice Department demand President Nixon turn over to them?
tapes that recorded his conversations regarding the Watergate Scandal
Did President Nixon give the Justice Department his tapes?
No, he refused
How did Nixon justify that he did not need to hand over the tapes?
Citing executive privilege, he claimed it endangered national security.
What did NIxon do when a federal judge ordered him to turn over the tapes?
Nixon refused to hand them over
What did Nixon order the Attorney General to do?
fire the prosecutor
Was President Nixon impeached?
In 1974, what did President Ford grant Richard Nixon?
Why did President Ford pardon Nixon?
Ford believed the credibility of government would be challenged at home and in foreign nations.
How did the American public respond to Nixon being pardoned for the Watergate Scandal?
President Ford's approval rating dropped from 71% to 50% because the American people felt a double standard should not be allowed when a person breaks the law.
What did President Ford do to Vietnam draft evaders in 1974?
Ford gave official forgiveness requiring them to affirm allegiance to the United States and spend up to 2 years performing public service.
How did critics respond to Vietnam evaders being pardoned?
Critics believed it was unfair to soldiers who risked their lives in battle serving the country.
Who took control of Congress in 1974?
What did Ford do more than any other president in a 2 years period of time?
Ford vetoed 66 bills associated to social welfare programs more than any other president.
How did President Ford's vetoes affect his relationship with Congress?
led to poor Congressional relations
What did Congress approve in 1975?
What did Congress reject in 1975?
How did Congress and President Ford disagreeing over economic policies affect the nation?
Nation experienced a recession
How did Congress maintain influence in Southeast Asia?
1. rejected any military aid
2. approved $300 million in humanitarian aid
What did Cambodian Communists do in 1975?
captured the Mayaguez, a United States cargo ship
How did President Ford respond to the capture of the Mayaguez?
Ford launched a military action intended to free the vessel.
Why did the relations between the United States and the Soviet Union become strained in the 1970's?
Congress criticized the Soviet emigration policy that did not allow Jews and opponents of the government to leave the country.
Why was President Carter elected in 1976?
Carter pledged to make government honest and trustworthy.
What caused Carter's approval rating to rise in 1976?
Carter announced an unconditional pardon for Vietnam draft evaders.
What was President Carter's economic plan to decrease inflation?
1. tax cuts
2. voluntary wage and price controls
3. cuts in federal spending
How was America affected by Carter's economic plan?
inflation and unemployment increased.
What was the National Energy Act of 1977?
Congress would oversee energy issues.
What happened in 1979 that disrupted the world's oil shipments?
revolution in Iran
What happened in the United States as a result of the Iranian revolution?
oil and gas prices increased causing an energy crisis
What happened in 1979 that affected the energy crisis?
nuclear reactor failed causing a meltdown at Three Mile Island
What was President Carter's declaration towards human rights?
Carter supported the universal right to freedom form unlawful torture and that the United States commitment to human rights must be absolute.
How did international dictators respond to Carter's declaration toward human rights?
caused tensions between the United States and nations that had dictators.
What did President Carter ratify in 1978 in the hopes that the United States image with communist countries would improve?
Panama Canal treaties granting control of canal operations to Panama.
What did the Soviet Union do in 1979 that upset the United States?
invaded Afghanistan and install a Soviet leader.
Why was the United States concerned over the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan?
Soviet troops were within striking distance of major oil routes.
What did the United States do when the Soviet Union refused to remove their troops from Afghanistan?
1. boycotted the 1980 Olympics
2. delayed key United States - Soviet arms control treaty
Which group immigrated in the 1970's?
Why did many immigrants find it difficult to get good jobs?
2. difficulty speaking English
What was the Bilingual Education Act of 1974?
increased funding for public schools to provide instruction to students in their primary languages while they learn English.
What was the Voting Rights Act of 1975?
required communities to print voting materials in foreign languages.
Why did many citizens move to the Sunbelt during the 1970's?
success of the Civil Rights Movement
increased # of jobs created by World War II
Why were more citizens living alone during the 1970's?
1. people were waiting longer to get married
2. states made divorce easier to obtain
What happened to the birth rates during the 1970's?
birth rates decreased
What did the economic turmoil of the 1970's encourage many Americans to do?
join nontraditional religious groups
What did concerns over health habits and alcohol consumption lead many Americans to do?
join physical fitness activities
What did the United States space program do in 1973?
placed Skylab, the first U.S. space station, in orbit
What were some of the technological innovations of the 1970's?
1. Personal computers (PC)
2. cordless vacuum cleaners
3. powerless tools
4. video game systems