A & P Exams Review

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Terms in this set (...)

The terms superior or inferior are terms that designate anatomical parts above or below this plane
Transverse
How would the shoulders be described in position relative to the waist?
Superior
Which organ would be considered superficial?
Skin
What describes a direction away from the midline of the body?
Lateral
Left and right are terms resulting from dividing the body with this type of plane
sagittal
A plane separating the face from the back of the head would be a
frontal (coronal)
What are the pair of terms that describe the relative position of the ears compared to the nose?
Lateral/ Medial
What is an not an example of the anatomical position?
Arms extended away from the body
How would the position of the hand can be described relative to the elbow?
Distal
What describes the prone position
Laying face down on the floor
What position on the body could the abdominal muscles be found?
Anterior
What position describes laying face up on the floor?
Supine
A small child looking up at a much taller adults face would be consider a(n) ________________ view
Antero-inferior
A method used to gather information about the nature of functions of living organisms and their parts.
Active Experimentation
Any living thing from the simplest to the most complex.
organism
A technique used to isolate and identify structural components of anatomy.
Dissection
The study of the function of a living organism and its parts.
Physiology
A group of tissues working together to perform a common function
Organ
The level of complexity involving atoms and molecules.
Chemical
A group of organs working together to perform complex functions for the body.
System
A group of cells that perform a similar function
Tissue
The study of the structure of an organism and the relationship of its parts.
Anatomy
The simplest living level of complexity of an organism
Cell
What organs are found in the ventral body cavity?
Stomach and lung
What organ is found in the thoracic cavity
Heart
What organ is found in the abdominal cavity
Liver
What organ is found in the pelvic cavity?
Bladder
What organ is found in the pleural cavities?
Lungs
Which cavities are found on the anterior side of the body?
Both ventral and abdominal
What is the name of the cavity that contains the trachea, heart, and large blood vessels?
Mediastinum
What are the two main cavities of the body?
Ventral and dorsal
What body planes can be used to pass through the umbilicus (belly button) to divide the body into the 4 abdominal quadrants?
Sagittal and transverse
A doctor is looking at a patient standing in front of her. The patient uses her right hand to point to a location of pain directly under her ribs on anterior right side of her body. What quadrant is this located in?
Right upper quadrant
The three upper regions of the nine abdominal pelvic regions are the
left hypochondriac, epigastric, right hypochondriac
Which of the regions is in the middle of the nine abdominopelvic regions?
umbilical
Which regions are found along the lower level of the nine abdominopelvic regions?
right iliac, hypogastric, left iliac
Carpal
Wrist
Zygomatic region
Upper cheek
Nasal
Nose
Orbital
eyes
Cephalic
Head
Antebrachial
Forearm
Cranial
Skull
Crural
Lower Leg
Cutaneous
Skin
Cubital
Elbow
Brachial
Upper Arm
Cervical
Neck
Antecubital
Depressed area in front of elbow
Abdominal
Anterior torso below the diaphragm
Axillary
Armpit
Frontal
Forehead
Digital
Dingers and toes
Oral
Mouth
Buccal
Cheek
Dorsal
Back
Perineal
Area between anus and genitals
Inguinal
Groin
Volar
Palm or sole
Occipital
Back of lower skull
Olecranal
Back of elbow
Supraclavicular
Area above clavicle
Thoracic
Chest
Popliteal
Area behind knee
Tarsal
Ankle
Palmar
Palm of hand
Pedal
Foot
Mammary
Breast
Umbilical
Area around navel
Pelvic
Lower portion of torso
Femoral
Thigh
Lumbar
Lower Back
Temporal
Side of skull
Plantar
Sole of foot
Gluteal
Buttock
The body's continuous ability to respond to changes in the environment and to maintain relative constancy in the internal environment is called
Homeostasis
Which of the following structures does NOT lie within the abdominal cavity?
Heart
The cutaneous part of the body would generally be considered
Superficial
A person laying face down after fainting would be considered to be
Prone
Which of the following is adjacent to the hypogastric region?
Right iliac region
The thoracic portion of the ventral body cavity is separated from the abdominopelvic portion by a muscle called the
Diaphragm
A lengthwise plane running from side to side that divides the body into anterior and posterior is called
Coronal
What is not a component of the axial subdivision of the body?
Upper extremities
A study of the functions of living organisms and the function of their parts is called:
Physiology
The dorsal body cavity contains these organs.
Brain and spinal cord
The type of feedback loop that tends to restore or stabilize conditions is called
Negative
The plane that divides superior from inferior is known as which plane?
Transverse
Where does the ankle lie in relation to the knee?
Distal
What organ is NOT found in the pelvic cavity?
Stomach
Which of the following organs or structures does NOT lie within the mediastinum?
Stomach
In the human body, the entire chest region is called the
Thoracic Cavity
Which of the following regions does NOT belong with the others?
Carpal
Pain from surgery to remove an appendix would be located in which quadrant?
Lower Right
Relative constancy when discussing homeostasis refers to
Values falling within an acceptable range.
Water is able to dissolve many other substances. Because of this, it is called a
Solvent
Molecules that form ions when dissolved in water are called
Electrolytes
The number of protons and neutrons combined is an atom's
Atomic Mass
Another name for water disrupting the bonds of a larger molecule to break it down into two or more smaller molecules is
Hydrolysis
What is the charge on a proton and electron, respectively?
Positive, Negative
What two sub-atomic particles are found in the nucleus?
Protons and Neutrons
How does the pH of a substance of pH = 4 compared to a pH = 6
100 times stronger acid
Another name for a charged atom or group of atoms is a(n)
Ion
Substances with more than one kind of element are called
Compounds
The type of bond formed that holds NaCl together as a result of transferring electrons from one atom to another is a(n)
Ionic Bond
When reactants combine to form a larger molecule resulting in a loss of water from the new molecule, this is called
Dehydration synthesis
Substances composed of only one type of atom are called
Elements
What is the range on the pH scale of 0 to 7?
Acid
"Little Organs". Specialized structures in the cytoplasm. Each has a special shape and function of cellular growth, maintenance, or reproduction.
Organelles
Control Center. Contains the DNA in the 23 pairs of chromosomes with instructions for manufacturing proteins.
Nucleus
Power plants of cell. Use the oxygen that comes into the cell to combine with ADP to produce ATP ( the energy of the cell).
Mitochondria
Microtubule organizing center of the the cell near the nucleus. Important for organizing cell division.
Centrosome
Chains of amino acids. These are the building blocks for all the structures in the cell and the human body.
Protiens
Smooth and rough folded membranes. Helps receive, transport, and fold proteins deposited by the ribosomes.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Long whiplike projection on the sperm cell for propelling the cell through a fluid.
Flagellum
Gatekeeper. Bilayer of phospholipid molecules that are both polar and non-polar.
Plasma membrane
Contains RNA for the production of proteins at the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
Nucleolus
The opening of a protein channel through the cell membrane for passive transport and active transport.
Pore
Protein factories. This is where the chains of amino acids are put together using transfer RNA during the translation process.
Ribosomes
Hairlike cell surface projections. Every cell has at least one. Detects conditions outside the cell and moves materials past the cell.
Cilia
Digestive bags. Break down large food molecules absorbed by the cell, breakdown and recycle waste, and destroy microbes.
Lysosomes
Organelles and cytosol excluding nucleus.
Cytoplasm
Cell infrastructure. Microfilaments that support the cell structure to maintain its shape and move materials. Includes strands of fiber and microtubules
Cytoskeleton
Processing and packaging center. Flattened sacs which further combine and fold the proteins and package them into transport vesicles to be distributed further in the cell.
Golgi Apparatus
46 DNA molecules found in the nucleus and a 47th one found in mitochondria that contain the genetic code of the cell.
Chromosomes
Tiny surface extensions on the plasma membrane that increase surface area for more efficient absorption.
Microvilli
The liquid portion of the cytoplasm containing solutes.
Microvilli
Two are positioned at right angles in the centrosome. Made of microtubules which help position chromosomes during cell division.
Centrioles
What is not an example of a flat bone
Vertebra
What is an example of a sesamoid bone?
Patella
What is not apart of the appendicular skeleton?
Ribs
What type of bones are the phalanges (fingers) of the hand and foot?
Long bones
What is a not a good example of the function of the skeletal system?
Manufacture of hormones
What is an example of a short bone?
Vertebra
What is an example of the axial skeleton?
Sternum
What is an example of an irregular bone?
Hip bone
What is an example of a long bone
Carpal (wrist)
What important function for the blood does the skeletal system fulfill?
Produces red blood cells to carry oxygen
Bone that is very dense and is found primarily in the shaft of long bones
Compact Bone
The hollow part of a long bone containing the yellow marrow.
Medullary Cavity
A cartilage cell
chondrocyte
The tough outer covering of the bone.
Periosteum
A large bone cell that reshapes and reabsorbs bone
Osteoclast
The basic structural unit of compact bone
osteon or haversian system
A thin layer covering the epiphyseal end of a long bone to provide a surface that reduces friction in a joint.
Articular Cartilage
A small bone cell that lays down a calcium matrix of bone.
Osteoblast
The shaft of a long bone.
Diaphysis
Tiny passageways that connect the lacunae with each other and with the central canal.
Canaliculi
The needle-like network of spongy bone that surrounds the network of spaces.
Trabeculae
The little spaces the contain osteocytes
Lacunae
A horizontal passageway that contains a blood vessel carrying nutrients to the osteon.
Volkmanns canal or transverse canal
A bone cell trapped in a space in compact bone.
Osteocyte
The ends of a long bone.
epiphysis
A thin membrane lining the medullary cavity of a long bone.
Endosteum
Bone that is very porous and is found primarily in flat bones and the end of long bones.
Spongy Bone
Rings of calcified matrix in compact bone that give the bone its strength.
Lamellae
The opening in the middle of the osteon the carries a blood vessel.
Central Canal
The knee joint and elbow joint are examples of
Hinge joints
The spinal cord enters the cranium through the magna foramen found in which bone?
Occipital
Bone joints between the carpals, tarsals, and vertebrae are classified as
gliding joints
Another name for the shinbone of the lower leg is the
Tibia
How many phalanges are in the skeletal system of the human? ( both fingers and toes)
56
What is not the main part of a long bone?
Axis
True ribs are defined as such because
They attach directly to the sternum by means of cartilage
What bones are apart of the appendicular skeleton?
Feet, Hip girdle, and Shoulder girdle
What is a function of bones?
Storage of minerals, Hematopoiesis and Protection
Where is the articular cartilage of a long bone found?
On the surface end of each epiphysis
As a child grows to an adult, these five bones fuse into one bone.
Sacrum
Which bone articulates distally with the patella?
Femur
Flat bones such as those of the skull consist of
one layer of compact bone, an inner layer of spongy bone, and a third layer of compact bone
What are a few examples of the axial skeleton?
Cranial bones, ribs, vertebrae
Which facial bones form the feature called the cheekbones?
Zygomatic
The saddle joint is only found in the
Thumb
How many PAIR of true ribs are there?
7
What is the name of the longest bone in the body?
Femur
The last two pairs of ribs are referred to as
Floating ribs
In an infant, each coxal bone consists of three separate bones. These bones are
Iilium, Ischium, pubis
Which two regions of the vertebral column eventually fuse from several bones into a single bone in the adult?
Sacral and Coccyx
The small bone that later fuses to the body of the sternum as a child grows to adulthood is called the
Xiphoid Process
Where would the Atlas and Axis vertebrae be found?
Cervical Region
What bones are apart of the upper extremity?
Radius, Ulna, and Scapula
The bone that is considered the "funny bone" because of the sensation caused by striking the nerve running past this bone in the elbow is called the
Ulna
What is not true of the spine?
A baby is born with a straight spine that later develops curves
An example of a synarthrotic joint is
cranial suture
What is true about a female skeleton
Wider pelvic angle
The basic units of circular structure of compact bone are called
Osteons or haversian systems
The process of cartilage changing to bone during the maturation process is called
ossification
The four types of bones excluding sesamoid bones are
Flat, irregular, short, and long
What are some of the cranial bones?
Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Sphenoid
What are the three bones in the ear?
stapes, malleus, and incus
What feature does characterize a synovial joint?
protected by articular cartilage and surrounded by a joint capsule
A long jumper injuries their heel bone when they plant to jump. What bone was injured?
Calcaneus
When a baby learns to stand, which area of the spine becomes more concave ( curved in ) ?
Lumbar
The bone that runs along the lateral side of your forearm when in the anatomical position and is on the thumb side is the
Radius
The structures that attach bones to bones are _______________ while the structures that attach muscles to bones are _______________________.
Ligaments, tendons
The bones of the wrist and hand are optimal in size and shape for
Dexterity
The bones in the palm of the hand are the
Metacarpals
What is true about cartilage in contrast to bone?
It rebuilds itself slowly because it has no blood supply
Spaces or cavities within some of the cranial bones are called
Sinuses
What is an example of a membrane found on the outside of the shaft of a long bone?
Periosteum
Which fontanelle is the last to ossify and is considered the soft spot of a baby's skull?
Anterior fontanelle
Where is the tibial tuberosity found on the tibia?
Anterior proximal
What feature of the scapula helps the humerus from dislocating to the anterior of the shoulder?
Coracoid process
The lateral malleolus is the distal part of this bone.
fibula
What foramen is associated with the passageway for nerves to the teeth of the lower jaw?
Mental foramen
The mastoid process would be found
Posterior to the ear
What landmark on a thoracic vertebrae projects from each side and articulates with each of the pairs of ribs?
Transverse process
The zygomatic arch is formed by the junction of what two bones?
Temporal and zygomaticus
The squamous suture is primarily between what two cranial bones?
Partietal and temporal
The narrow area of bone found between the head of the femur and the greater trochanter is referred to as the
neck
What two bones are fused to form the obturator foramen?
Ishium and pubis
The head of the radius rotates by the
Proximal end of the ulna
The concave depression of the scapula forming the socket for the head of the humerus to rotate in is called the
glenoid cavity
The auditory meatus would be a foramen found in the _______________ bone.
Temporal
The name of the socket in the hip area that the head of the femur fits into is called the
Acetabulum
The vertebral foramen is located _______________ to the body of the vertebrae.
Posterior
What process is an extension of the spine of the scapula and is the highest part of the shoulder?
Acromion process
Where is the iliac crest?
Superior to the femur head
The landmark of the femur that can be felt on the lateral upper leg is the
Greater trochanter
What landmark of a vertebrae can be felt on the back of a person along the vertebral column and sticks out as a series of bumps along the spine?
Spinal process
The spinal cord enters the cranium through the magna foramen found in which bone?
Occipital
The general name for a depression in a bone is a
fossa
The greater and lesser tubercle would be found near the head of the
humorous
The enlarged ends of the bones that the femur and tibia articulate with each other in the knee joint are called the
Condyles
The coronoid process helps to move the __________ through the groove of the trochlea of the humerus to flex and extend the lower arm.
ulna
Stretches in the bladder to change shape
Stratified Transititional
Lines the surface of the trachea.
Pseudostratified
The outer layer of the skin.
stratified squamous
Single layer of tall, narrow cells
simple columnar
One layer of cube shaped cells
simple cuboidal
Lines the stomach and intestines for protection and absorption.
simple columnar
Allows for absorption of gasses in alveoli and capillaries.
Simple sqamous
Single layer of flattened cells
simple squamous
Appears to have two layers while only having one
Pseudostratified
Lines glands and tubules
Simple Cuboidal
Which sense receptor in the skin is responsible for pressure?
Pacinain corpuscle
What type of epithelial cells form the multiple flat layers of the outer skin ?
Statified Squamous
If blood oxygen levels decrease or if actual blood flow is reduced dramatically, fingernails will turn blue. This is known as
Cyanosis
Which layer would you find more connective tissue with scattered cells in it?
dermis
Which layer of the skin multiplies cells called keratinocytes that eventually move to the surface of the skin?
stratum basale
Which layer of the skin would sweat glands, sebaceous glands and hair follicles be found in?
Dermis
What percentage of the body is burned if the front right leg, anterior trunk, genitals, and back and front of the head are burned?
37%
Which sweat glands are the most numerous and are, with few exceptions, distributed over the total body surface?
eccrine
Which system would not have a mucous membrane?
Nervous system
Stratified transitional epithelial tissue is important in this organ of the body because of its ability to stretch.
bladder
What is the major constituent of the subcutaneous or hypodermis?
fat cells
What type of membrane would be found lining the abdominal CAVITY.
Parietal peritoneum
The tough outer layer of the epidermis is called the
statum corneum
Specialized cells found in the stratum spinosum that provide an immune response by identifying harmful microbes are called
langerhans cells
Apocrine glands are found primarily in the
armpits or axilla
The membrane that lines body cavities and covers the surfaces of organs in those cavities is
serous membrane
What substance prevents drying and cracking of the skin which is secreted by a gland in the dermis?
sebum
A typical sunburn would be classified as a
1st degree burn
Because the nail bed forms new cells that grow into a new finger nail, the cells that produce the new nail are formed in the
epidermis
Which type of burn produces primarily blistering?
2nd degree
When the body loses heat due to wind chill, the additional heat loss is from
convection
What pigment is responsible for the color of the skin?
melanin
What structure in the dermis causes goosebumps in response to fear or cold?
arrestor pili
What happens to the blood vessels in the skin in order to cool the blood that comes from the core of the body?
dilation
What would be a good example of a mucous membrane?
digestive tract
which cells is found in the stratum basale?
keratinocyte and melanocyte
The most serious type of skin cancer is
melanoma
What substance is common to hair, fingernails, and the corneum stratum?
keratin
The tubelike structure where hair growth occurs deep in the skin is the
follicle
The name of the light colored "little moon" at the base of your nail is called the
lunula
A single layer of tall, narrow cells that provide excellent protection and absorption are called
simple columnar
What type of cooling is necessary to cool the body when the air temperature is higher than body temperature?
sweating and evaporation
What layer of the skin do the fingerprints actually ORIGINATE from?
papillary dermis
Which blood vessels dilate and constrict in the skin in order to regulate temperature?
arterioles
What is a function of the skin?
Protection from bacteria and viruses, sensory input, temperature regulation, and synthesis of Vitamin D