AMSCO Chapter 21 The Progressive Era 1901-1917
Terms in this set (61)
Reform movement that developed that included a wide range of groups and individuals with a common desire to improve life in the Industrial Age. Their ideas and work became known as Progressivism because they wanted to build on the existing society making moderate political changes and social improvements through government action.
Origins of Progressivism
Progressivism started with Theodore Roosevelt in 1901 and continued all the to 1917 with Woodrow Wilson. WWI brings the era to an end but not before major laws had been enacted by Congress and various State Legislatures.
Attitudes & Motives for Progressivism
America went from:
Industrialized>Mixed Ethnicity>Growing Cities
The Middle Class was worried about the rising power of Big Business, Uncertainty of Business Cycles, Increasing Gap Between Rich & Poor, Violent Conflicts between Labor & Capital, Corrupt Political Machines, Racist Jim Crow Laws in the South and the Women's Suffrage Movement
Who were the Progressives?
An extremely diverse group. Each group championed their own set of reforms that they were worried about. These included Protestant Church Leaders, African Americans, Union Labor Leaders, Feminists. Linking them together as Progressives was the idea that society was in need of changes and that the government was the proper agency for correcting social & economic ills
Urban Middle Class
Progressives were not made up of rural Americans but of Middle Class Men and Women from the Cities. These were made up of Doctors, Lawyers, Ministers & Business Owners. Also thousands of white collar office workers and middle managers employed in the banks, manufacturing firms, and other businesses formed a key segment of the economy
Members of the Business Class who used Science and Statistical Methods in order to address corrupt business and government practices.
Protestant Churches preached against Vice and taught Social Responsibility. This included caring for the less fortunate and insisting on honesty in public life.
Popularized by Walter Rauschenbush this was a code of social responsibility that included caring for the less fortunate and insisting on honesty in public life.
Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)
Trustbuster, Conservationist, Led the Rough Riders in the Spanish American War, Pushed for the building of the Panama Canal. Assumed to the Presidency after the assassination of William McKinley
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party. He is famous for his "Cross of Gold" Speech in which he dares party leadership to "nail him to their Cross of Gold" .
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Historians see Progressivism as part of a reform tradition going back to Jeffersonians in the early 1800's, Jacksonian's in the 1830's and Populists in the 1890's. All three movements before Progressivism believed in democratic values, honest government and just laws
Pragmatism (William James & John Dewey)
Believed that the modern society should rely on guidance on the test of scientific inquiry rather than on inherited ideas and moral principles. He was a key figure in the movement. They preached that people should take a practical approach to morals, ideals and knowledge. They argued that "Good" & "True" could not be known in the abstract as fixed and changeless ideals. Two theories that were challenged under pragmatism were Laissez-Faire Capitalism and Rugged Individualism.
Scientific Management System
Used by Frederick W. Taylor to utilize a stopwatch to time the output of Factory Workers. He used this organization to show the government that if it were to organize people in the most efficient manner it would eliminate inefficiencies like corrupt political bosses and political machines
Newspapers found that their Middle-Class readers loved to read about underhanded schemes in politics. Therefore, many publications featured in-depth, investigative stories. Writers who specialized in these stories were referred to as Muckrakers by Theodore Roosevelt.
Most Famous Muckraker
Lincoln Steffens (Shame of the Cities): Corruption
Ida Tarbell (The History of the Standard Oil Company): Monopolies
Jacob Riis (How the Other Half Lives): Slums & Tenement Life
Decline of Muckraking
Stories became more and more sensationalized and peaked. Publishers were being pressured by Banks and Advertisers to tone down their anti-business rhetoric and corporations were becoming aware of their public image and developing a new specialty, the field of public relations
Australian or Secret Ballot
Voting within a private booth. This was created so that voter intimidation and manipulation was not the norm.
Introduced by Robert La Follette, this placed the nominating process in the hands of voters. Voters could now choose the candidate that would be representing their party.
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.
A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed Constitutional Amendment.
Procedure whereby voters can remove an elected official from office
State Reform Progressives
Charles Evans Hughes (NY) - Battled Fraudulent Insurance Companies
Hiram Johnson (CA) - Fought the Corruption of the Southern Pacific Railroad
Robert La Follette - (WI) Created a Direct Primary Law, Tax Reform and State Oversight Committees to curb corruption.
Temperance & Prohibition
Urban Progressives understood Saloons were the headquarters of Political Machines. They generally however, had little sympathy for the Temperance Movement. Rural Reformers however thought they could eliminate the ills of society by cleaning up morals and politics in one stroke by abolishing alcohol. By 1915 Two-Thirds of the States prohibited the sale of Alcoholic Beverages.
Muller vs Oregon
1908 - Louis D Branders got the Supreme Court to accept laws protecting women against the harmful effects of factory labor.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
(1911) 146 women killed while locked into the burning building (brought attention to poor working conditions). Called for working fire escapes, doors that opened outward and fire extinguishers
Economic policy by Roosevelt that emphasized:
1) Fair relationship between Laborer and Industrial Bosses
2) Dismantling dangerous Monopolies & Trusts
3) Regulating Railroads to force them to give fair rebates
4) Protect Consumers (Creation of the FDA)
Anthracite Coal Strike (1902) (Labor)
the 1902 strike in which Theodore Roosevelt summoned both sides to the White House and, after threats of seizure and use of troops against the coal bosses, reached a compromise of a 10% pay increase and a nine-hour day.
Northern Securities Case (1904)
Roosevelt's legal attack on the Northern Securities Company, which was a railroad holding company owned by James Hill and J.P. Morgan. In the end, the company was "trust-busted" and paved the way for future trust-busts of bad trusts.
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by William Henry Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices.
Elkins Act (1903)
Interstate Commerce Act
by imposing heavy fines on railroads offering rebates and on the shippers accepting them
Hepburn Act (1906)
This Act tightened existing railroad regulation. Empowered the Interstate Commerce Commission to set maximum railroad rates and to examine railroad's financial records.
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.
Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Meat Inspection Act (1906)
Made it so that meat would be inspected by the government at a moments notice and many times unannounced. It began a quality rating system as well as increased the sanitation requirements for meat producers.
Forest Reserve Act of 1891
John Muir - starts Sierra Club in 1892 and is leader of preservation
Roosevelt - Designates Wilderness as Sacred (150 Million Acres of Federal Land as National Reserve) 1905-Nat'l Forest Service - 1906-Antiquities Act
1916 - Nat'l Park Service 916
William Howard Taft (1909-1913)
Major Events: Dollar Diplomacy in Caribbean; Split with Theodore Roosevelt in 1912, Prosecuted more than twice the amount of Anti-Trust cases as Roosevelt. Was a true trust buster.
16th Amendment (1913)
Authorized the collection of a progressive income tax. "Progressive" means as you make a higher income, you pay a higher percentage. This tax does not apply to money made on investments or in the stock market. Today, this is the primary source of revenue for the federal government.
Republican Party Split (Republicans dis-satisfied w/Taft)
Payne-Aldrich Tariff (Raised Import Tariffs)
Pinchot Ballinger Controversy (Conservationists vs Stalwarts)
Ballinger opened public lands in Alaska for private development, when Pinchot (Secretary of the Interior) criticized him, Taft fired him, Progressives protested Taft's decision, arguing that he was going against the Progressive Agenda.
Eugene V. Debs
Head of the American Railway Union and director of the Pullman strike; he was imprisoned along with his associates for ignoring a federal court injunction to stop striking. While in prison, he read Socialist literature and emerged as a Socialist leader in America.
Progressives vs Socialists
Progressives thought the ideas of Socialism were too radical. Progressives favored only mild reforms not radical causes. Some Socialist ideas were accepted. (8-Hour Workday, Pension for Employees)
Election of 1912
Presidential campaign involving:
William Howard Taft (Republican)
Theodore Roosevelt (Bull Moose Party)
Woodrow Wilson Taft (Democrat)
Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote, enabling Wilson to win
Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.
Clayton Antitrust Act (1914)
Strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act by spelling out specific activities businesses could not do. Unions could not be treated as trusts no matter how powerful they got.
Federal Trade Commission
(WW) 1914 , A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy, support antitrust suits.
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910. He argued against Booker T. Washington stating that "Political & Social rights were a prerequisite for economic independence.
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
Movement of African Americans from the South to the North for jobs between 1910 & 1930. This occurred because of 1) Deteriorating Race Relations 2) Destruction of the Cotton Crops 3) Job Opportunities in Northern Factories that opened up when White workers were drafted into World War I. About 1 Million People moved North.
Niagara Movement (1905)
Founded by W.E.B. DuBois to promote the education of African Americans in the liberal arts; end segregation & discrimination in unions, courts, & public accommodations; equality of opportunity
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Founded by W.E.B. Du Bois on Abraham Lincoln's Birthday it sought to abolish all forms of segregation and to improve education for African American Children. By 1920 it had 100,000 members.
Susan B. Anthony
Social reformer who campaigned for women's rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Women's Suffrage Association
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
Carrie Chapman Catt
(1859-1947) A suffragette who was president of the National Women's Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.
Head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.
The constitutional amendment adopted in 1920 that guarantees women the right to vote.
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.