Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception
Terms in this set (88)
the process by which a stimulated receptor(sense organs) creates a pattern of neural messages that represent stimulus in the brain.
a process that makes sensory patterns meaningful
how we interpret the stimulus
changing stimulus into nerve signals. converts physical energy into nerve signals
diminishing responsiveness of sensory systems to prolonged simulation
Sensory adaptation example
getting used to cold water when swimming
the amount of stimulation needed for signal detection
the smallest physical difference between stimuli that can be recognized as difference
Just Noticeable Difference(JND)
the JND is large when stimulus intensity is high and the JND is small when intensity is low.
Weber's Law Example
its easier to tell the difference in tv volume between 4 and 5 and harder to tell the difference between 110-115
small stimulus is perceived relatively accurate. Larger stimulus is harder.
Steven's Power Law
Signal Detection Theory
sensation depends on characteristics of the stimulus, background stimulus, and the detector. detects realtionships among stimulus. we decide what we detect
thin, light sensitive layer at the back of the eyeball. contains photoreceptors and nerve cells.
light sensitive cells (neurons) in the retina that convert light energy to neural impulses.
Photorepceptors sensitive to dim light not colors
Photoreceptors sensitive to colors not dim light
area of sharpest vision in our eye
bundle of neurons that carries visual information from the retina to the brain
caused by optic nerve. there are no photoreceptors on the optic nerve. stimulus here cannot be seen
part of the brain that processes what we see
a psychological sensation cause by intensity of light waves
hue. psychological sensation derived from the wavelength of visible life. Color is not a property of the external world.
the entire range of electromagnetic energy (x rays, microwaves, and visible light)
the small part of the electromagnetic spectrum to which our eyes are sensitive. creatures can have difference visible spectrums
the idea that colors are sensed by three different cones sensitive to light in the red, blue, and green wavelengths.
Opponent Process Theory
the idea that cells in the visual process colors in complimentary pairs. Explains color sensation from the bipolar cells onward the visual system.
sensations that linger after the stimulus is removed
total inability to distinguish colors
number of cycles completed by a wave in a given amount of time. determines pitch
physical stregth of a wave. determines volume
Sound becomes Sensations
1. Tympanic membrane 2. cochlea 3. Basilar Membrane 4. Auditory nerve and Auditory Cortex
primary hearing organ. coiled tube. Transduction takes place here.
In cochlea. A thin strip of tissue sensitive to vibrations. contains hair cells. tranduction
neural pathway connecting ear to brain
in temporal lobe. processes sound and adds perception
high or low. characterized by frequency
different places in the Basilar membrane detect different levels of pitch
we are designed to hear frequencies above 1000 and below 5000 hertz
volume. characterized by amplitude
quality of the sound wave derived from wave complexity
inability to hear based on damage to ear structures
an inability to hear based on problem with the body's ability to transmit impulses from the cochlea to the brain. usually problems with the auditory nerve.
sense of body orientation with respect to gravity. allows us to sense body movement and maintain balance
muscle memory sense. sense of body position and movement of body parts relative to each other
sense of smell
brain site of olfactory processing. below frontal lobe. may have developed laet. does not go through the thalamus
chemical signals released by organisms to communicate with other members of the species. they say things like "Stay away" "Come here" "My Property"
sense of taste
sensory systems for processing touch, warmth, pressure, warmth, cold, pain, and texture
we have a neural gate that can block incoming pain signals
substances that appear to be drugs but are not. used in deception
a response to a placebo caused by the belief that the subject is taking real drugs.
meaningful product of a perception
cells in the cortex that specialize in extracting certain feautures of a stimulus
an unsolved mystery concerning the processes used by the brain to form a single perception from many stimuli
analysis emphasizing characteristics of the stimulus rather than internal conceptions. stimulus then perceives
anaylsis that emphasizes the perceiver's expectaions, concept memories, and other cognitive factors. looks at perception then the atual stimulus
ability to recgonize the same object under different conditions.
incorrect perception of a stimulus. shared by others of the same perceptual environment.
images that are capable of more than one interpretation
much of perception is built by innate processing in the brain
the part of a pattern that stands out
the part ofan image that blends in. the background
identifies the tendency to fill gaps to see incomplete figures as complete.
Laws of Perceptual Grouping
laws that suggest how our brains prefer to group elements together to form a perception
Law of Similarities
we group similar objects together to form a perception
Law of Proximity
we group objects that are near each other
Law of Continuity
we prefer perceptions of continuous connected figures
Law of Common Fate
we group stimuli together that share a common motion or destination. example- a school of fish or students in the hallway
Law of Pragnanz
minimum principle of perception.
information taken in by both eyes that aids in depth perception
difference in perspectives of two eyes
lines of vision from each eye converge at different angles on objects at different distances
information about depth that relies on one eye
we use the size of the object to determine distance (or vice versa)
Light and Shadow
we tend to perceive objects that reflect the most light as closer
when one object blocks another we perceive it as closer
things closer to us seem to move faster
Atomospheric Perception. haze or fog covered objects seem farther away.the less fog the closer we perceive it
the taller something is we perceive it to be farther away
parallel lines seem to converge with distance
Learning Based Inference
resulted perception from learning
Context and Expectations
a theory that states we struggle to recognize objects when we don't expect to see them.
readiness to detect a particular stimulus
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