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Water Filtration terms and questions
Terms in this set (177)
which of the following are the ideal indicator for pathogens?
A. Salmonella species
B. Coliform group bacteria
C. Gram negative cocci
D. gram negative coccobacilli
B. Coliform group bacteria
Acids bases and salts lacking carbon are?
C. organic compounds
D. inorganic compounds
D. Inorganic compounds
A physical property as opposed to a chemical property, important to water treatment is?
C. dissolved solids
D. electrical conductivity
the organisms used indicate the likelihood that pathogenic bacteria may be present are?
A. Salmonella bacteria
B. enteric Viruses
C. Coliform Bacteria
D. Pseudomonas group Bacteria
C. Coliform Bacteria
Total Coliform Rule
total number of positive samples permitted in water samples, depends on the size of the area or population
heterotropic plate count
procedure is a way to estimate the population of bacteria in water
Control valve with a solid plate operated by a handle and screw mechanism. Rotating the handle moves the plate into or out of the waterway.
A valve that allows flow in one direction but prevents flow in the opposite direction.
Smallest particle of an element
a figure expressing the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a logarithmic scale on which 7 is neutral, lower values are more acid and higher values more alkaline.
Valve having a ball-shaped internal component with a hole through its center that permits water to flow through when aligned with the waterway.
Anything that has mass and takes up space
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
is measured by biocarbonate concentration
small chemical pump that feeds chlorine or acid
A type of valve that is placed at the lowest portion of the pumps. and also is a retention valve
a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease.
Physical link between safe water and dirty water
A grab sample represents.
The quality of the water at the time the sample was taken.
mixture of several samples
electrical device inserted in a power line to protect equipment from sudden fluctuations in current
Charge neutralization step that conditions all matter by adding coagulants
Drinking Water Treatment Process
Adding to water coagulating compounds, such as alum or iron salts, allows particles to attach to coagulator and be removed
the process in which soil particles and decaying organic matter accumulate in layers on the ground or at the bottom of large bodies of water, contributing to the formation of sedimentary rock
A positive displacement pump that moves liquids by rotating a screw or a set of lobes, gears, or vanes
Force created by the rapid deceleration of water causing a violent increase in pressure that can be powerful enough to rupture piping or damage fixtures. Generally results from closing a valve or nozzle too quickly.
how the water of the earth is distributed
a hose connected to a running faucet that is left submerged in a bucket is an example of a
How much notice do you have to give the department when painting outside of a tank?
Must you notify the state regulatory agency when you are painting the outside of a holding tank?
Water passes through filtration medium, removes small particles, pathogens, and flocs
Membrane filtration: Filters particles, sediment, algae, protozoa, bacteria
Filters ionic species
chlorine, Ozone, Chlorine dioxide, and uv light
Radiation absorption dose
a measure dose absorbed by the body from radiation
The spontaneous emission of radiation by an unstable atomic nucleus
Public Water System
a system for the provision to the public of water for human consumption through pipes or other constructed conveyances
Which of the following is not typically a section covered in a sanitary survey?
A. water sources
B. storage facilities
C. Fire department hydrants
D. water system management and operations
C. Fire department Hydrants
the study of water and its effects on and in the earth and in the atmosphere
the movement of water through the biosphere
water that moves off land and water surfaces and into the atmosphere
Evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant
water movement with the air currents in the atmosphere
The change of state from a gas to a liquid
Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface.
Water being prevented from reaching the surface by trees or grass
An artesian aquifer could occur in a?
The place where groundwater accumulates is called a?
Drinking water that is aesthetically acceptable is considered?
A well feature that prevents contamination from entering the well
The metal pipe used to line the borehole of a well
Part of a well constructed to prevent sediment and rock particles from clogging the well and from being pumped into the water supply.
A concrete area placed around the casing of some wells to support pumping equipment and to help prevent surface water from contaminating the well water
Static water level
The level of the water surface in the well when no water is being taken from the aquifer
The upper level of the saturated zone of groundwater
The difference between the static water level and the pumping water level in a well
cone of depression
a cone-shaped depression in the groundwater level around a well during pumping
the rate of water that a well can supply over a long period of time
a wells pumping rate divided by the drawdown
A very wide relatively shallow caisson that has horizontally drilled wells with screen points at the bottom> radial wells are large producers.
A subsurface structure to receive water filtered through a streambed
the most frequent in-situ well treatment is the application of a?
Oxidant to reduce iron bacteria
which gas occurs mainly in groundwater is heavier than air and is odoriferous?
disinfection of water wells with free chlorine requires exposure for ________ at a concentration of ________.
12-24 hours; 50 mg/l
a pond, lake, reservoir constructed by carving out a basin or building a dam across a stream valley
new water that enters the aquifer from the surface
is required at the entrance to a conduit through which water is withdrawn from a river or reservoir
The accumulation of sediments, primarily silt, on the bottom of a reservoir.
the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers
An upper layer of warm water with high levels of dissolved oxygen
the lower layer of water in a stratified lake, typically cooler than the water above and relatively stagnant.
In water, a distinctive temperature transition zone that separates an upper layer that is mixed by wind (the epilimnion) and a colder, deep layer that is not mixed (the hypolimnion)
the development of vertical mixing within a lake or reservoir to eliminate (either totally or partially) separate layers of temperature, plant life, or animal life.
where land is _____, runoff tends to spread out and soak into the ground more easily
Streams that flow only occasionally, usually only during and shortly after a rain, called
To limit construction costs, a dam should be built
With locally available materials to the extent possible
wire mesh screen
a screen made of a wire fabric attached to metal frame
A preliminary treatment process used to remove gravel, sand, and other gritty material from the raw water before it enters the main treatment plant.
an enlargement of a conduit carrying raw water that allows the water velocity to slow down so that sand and other grit can settle
a centrifugal sand-and-grit removal device
a rotating drum lined with a finely woven material, such as stainless steel. they are used to remove algae and small debris before they enter the treatment plant
Process of oxidizing analyte prior to titrating it with a reducing agent.
bar screen assemblies are installed in a waterway at a ______ angle from the horizontal
60 to 80 degrees
_______ is a pretreatment process used to remove gravel, sand, and silt, from the raw water before it enters the main treatment facility
What is the opening size for medium ranked fixed screens or bar screens?
1/2 in. to 1 in.
Finley divided solids such as bacteria and fine clay particles that will stay suspended in water for long periods of time
A measure of how clear water is.
A term that describes the treatment process used by most US surface water systems. coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration
Sticky clumps formed from the reaction of alum in water, combined with sand and other waste solids
Solids in suspension that are separated by filtering a sample and drying and weighing residue.
suspended particles that will settle to the bottom in 1 hour
Materials which are in the size range between dissolved and suspended substances; they are in a solid state and can be removed from liquid by physical means such as centrifugation or filtration through a membrane.
Any solid material dissolved in water, typically while the water is in contact with earth materials (examples are calcium, sodium, and magnesium)
Solid waste material from wastewater
A coagulant aid used to form a denser, stronger floc
A material such as bentonite added to low-turbidity waters to provide additional particles for good floc formation
A high-molecular-weight (relatively heavy) substance, having points of positive or negative electrical charges, that is formed by either natural or synthetic (manmade) processes.
The process of quickly mixing a chemical solution uniformly through the water
A device designed to produce turbulence and mixing of chemicals with water, by means of fixed sloping vanes within the unit, without the need for any application of power
Detention time in flocculation basins are usually designed to provide for
A tank or basin in which water is held for a period of time during which the heavier solids sercle to the bottom and the lighter materials float to the surface. Also called settling tank or CLARIFIER.
water flowing into a basin
water flowing from a basin
Public Water System
has at least 15 service connections, or serves 25 or more persons 60 or more days each year
name three types of the public water system
community pws, nontransient noncommunity, transient noncommunity
mcl for chlorite
mcl for chloramines
mcl for chlorine dioxide
MCL for fluoride
most common well, diameter can be 4' or more and can be quite deep
time a well needs to rest to come back to safe yield
water level when pumping
how you remove clogging particles from a well screen
-you must eliminate physical hazard
-prevent groundwater contamination
-conserve the aquifer
free cl2, chlorine dioxide, or ozone
oxidents stop them. cl2, potassium permanganate, or chlorine dioxide
odor and color removal
powdered activated carbon
Basins have how many zones
decreases velocity and distributes evenly
calm area for settling floc
transititon from settling to effluent
where sludge is kept
Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF)
has rapid mixing, flocculation, then clarification, sludge is floated to the top with air, makes pin-sized floc, excellent at removing low density particles. can achieve 2 log removal of cryptosporidium
how much more turbidity is removed with sedimentation basins
how many times a year is a basin cleaned out
slow sand filters
use fine particles of sand several feet deep and is very efficient for small scale operations
rapid sand filter
This is made out of sand and gravel and is used to naturally clean water. After the water traveling through these mediums clogs them, water is backwashed through the system to clean it.
gravity rapid sand filters
can be monomedia, dual-media, trimedia, mixed media, or granular activated carbon beds. dual and tri-media allow for longer runs at higher rates. filtration rates: 2-6 gpm/ft2 for 12-80 hours
pressure rapid sand filters
closed tanks or cylinders
loss of head
loss of pressure due to frictional pressures. caused by the accumulation of particles in the filter
removes both carbonate and non carbonate hardness form water. expensive to use
A process in which carbon dioxide is bubbled into the water being treated to lower the pH.
what are the two types of the D.E filter systems
ortho and poly phosphate
typical ph for rainwater
Magnetic flow meter
best suited for measuring the flow of sludge
offsets net force along the pump shaft
30 minutes minimum
walkways should be how wide
2 feet wide
instrument for measuring pressure
verticle distance, height, or energy of water above a reference point
how easy water can pass through permeable layer
basic objectives in water treatment
- safe water
-aesthetically pleasing water
-production at reasonable cost
device used to place grout under water
current electricity is ______________
Volts x Amps
transmitting multiple channels from one network
which of the following rules best apply to evacuating a chlorine leak area?
keep head high and move upwind
which of the following statements is always true regarding an artesian well?
the water contains a high level of chloride and sulfur
the effluent turbidty on a filter should never be allowed to increase to _______ before the filter is backwashed
in preparation for chlorine emergencies, where should a SCBA be kept?
just outside the chlorine room
when diffused air aeration is used, for maximum effect, the diffusers are located
at the bottom of the tank
which of the following are indicators of chlorine leakage in a chlorine room
reddish and greenish deposits on metal
Any water system, no matter what size, that has a routine or repeat sample test positive for total coliform must take at least ______ total coliform samples the following month.
According to the Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, how often must combined filter effluent turbidity be monitored in treatment plants using conventional and direct
every 4 hours
caused by bad backwashing
an indication of the volume of
What will most probably cause taste and odors, slime, and filter clogging?
Blue green algae
why can rapid sand filters handle higher filtration rates compared to slow sand filters?
Iron bacteria can interfere with_______ because the bacteria produce ______ that prevents the stabilization chemicals from reaching the pipe
stabilization, a slime layer
Hypochlorous acid is favored over hypochlorite ion when the ph is ___________ and the temperature is __________
what filter has an unstratified media distribution?
slow sand filters
what is (are) the combined chlorine residuals at ph values ranging from 6.5 to 8.5?
monochloramine and dichloramine
chlorination of water that has high concentrations of natural organic matter will produce
what must an operator periodically check regarding the cyclone separator
storage bin or hopper to empty of sand and grit
what are absolute ratings based on with regard to membranes?
largest pore opening
how are manganese greensand beds regenerated?
Backwashed with permanganate solution
The most effective process for removing radon gas, when considering cost and footprint, would be _________.
Packed tower aeration
What is the primary advantage of placing a properly sized anthracite coal layer over manganese greensand?
Longer filter run times
What factor will cause problems for chlorination?
What does the optimal ph establish when applied to iron and manganese oxidation?
In the lime soda ash softening process smaller plants find that _________ is less expensive to purchase; regardless of the size of the plant, __________ needs to be mixed long enough because it dissolves rather slowly.
calcium hydroxide, lime
A water plant using chloramines as a disinfectant has allowed sizable and to enter the distribution system. if this occurs over a period of years, which far end of the distribution system?
taste and odor will develop, bacterial growth will be supported and nitrification
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