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Bounds EP U.S. History Exam Review
Terms in this set (145)
Ten Percent Plan
Under this plan the government would pardon all Confederates (except high ranking officials and those accused of crimes against POW's), and all who would swear allegiance to the Union. As soon as 10% of those who had voted in 1860 took this oath, a Confederate state could form a new state government and send representatives and senators to Congress.
The minority of Republicans in Congress who disliked the Ten percent plan and wanted the South to be punished.
ex: Senator Charles Sumner and Representative Thaddeus Stevens
50% of white males from each state in the Confederacy would have to pledge loyalty to the Union. The states would be required to give African Americans the right to vote
an oath that the Wade-Davis Bill required a majority of voters and government officials in Confederate states to take; it involved swearing that they had never supported the Confederacy. Was opposed by Abraham Lincoln
Provided food, clothing, hospitals, legal protection, and education for former slaves and poor whites of the South in 1865. (Established by Congress)
Ratified at the end of 1865, Abolished slavery
Prevented states from denying rights and privileges to any U.S. citizens 1866
States that no one can be kept from voting because of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude"
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
KKK kept blacks away from the polls, but even if they got to the polls they were given literacy tests and poll taxes
Ku Klux Klan
The most notorius widespread Southern vigilante group
Reconstruction strategy that was based on severely punishing South for causing war. Pushed for by the Radical Republicans
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
Poor people (blacks and some whites) became virtual slaves to the soil and to the creditors. Farmers would give them land that could not be farmed (swamp land)
Tenure of Office Act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
Plessy v Ferguson (1896)
The supreme court ruled that the seperation of races in public accommodation was legal and didn't violate the 14th ammendment
Seperate but Equal doctrine
Established by Plessy v Ferguson. Allowed states to maintain segragated facilities for blacks and white as long as they provided equal service
Ida B. Wells
African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcards or shop in white owned stores
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality. Created Tuskegee Institute
Argument put forward by Booker T. Washington that African-Americans should not focus on civil rights or social equality but concentrate on economic self-improvement.
Opposed Booker T. Washington. Wanted social and political integration Founder of the Niagara Movement which led to the creation of the NAACP.
A group of black and white reformers who organized the NAACP in 1909
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
The argument by Frederick Jackson Turner that the frontier experience helped make American socity more democratic; emphasized cheap, unsettled land and the absence of a landed aristocracy.
Dawes Severalty Act
Aimed to "americanize" the Native Americans. Broke up reservations and gave some of the Reservation land to individual Native Americans--160 acres to each head of household and 80 acres to each unmarried adult
Battle of Little Bighorn
In 1876, Indian leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated Custer's troops who tried to force them back on to the reservation, Custer and all his men died
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and killed as many as 300 Native Americans (women and children too)
The Comstock Lode was the first major U.S. discovery of silver ore, located under what is now Virginia City, Nevada, on the eastern slope of Mount Davidson, a peak in the Virginia Range. After the discovery was made public in 1859, prospectors rushed to the area and scrambled to stake their claims. Mining camps soon thrived in the vicinity, which became bustling centers of fabulous wealth.
Homestead Act of 1862
this allowed a settler to acquire 160 acres by living on it for five years, improving it and paying about $30. Encouraged westward settlement
Railroad connecting the west and east coasts of the continental US
name given to Great Plains farmers because they had to break through so much thick soil, called sod, in order to farm
The overland transport of the cattle thats lasted up to three months was extremely dangerous to the cowboys that led the cattle
African Americans who moved from post reconstruction South westward seeking a better life
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 law that prohibited the immigration of Chinese laborers
Originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads
Grangers state legislatures in 1874 passed law fixing maximum rates for freight shipments. The railroads responded by appealing to the Supreme Court to declare these laws unconstitutional (court case was Munn v. Illinois
Interstate Commerce Act
Reestablished the right of the federal government to supervise railroad ativities and established a five-member Interstate Commerce Commission
Sherman Antitrust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Farmers' Alliance movement
Southern and Midwestern farmers expressing discontent, supported free silver and subtreasury plan (cash advance on future crop — farmers had little cash flow during the year), criticized national banks
A political group which began to emerge in 1891. They gained much support from farmers who turned to them to fight political unfairness. They used a progressive platform. They were also known as the People's Party.
Political agenda adopted by the populist party in 1892 at their Omaha, Nebraska convention. Called for unlimited bimetallism, government regulation of railroads and industry, graduated income tax, and a number of election reforms.
a monetary system in which the government would give citizens either gold or silver in exchange for paper currency or checks
Cross of Gold Speech
An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.
Robber Barons/ Captains of Industry
Robber barons- a person who has become rich through ruthless and unscrupulous business practices
Captains of Industry- In the late 19th century a captain of industry was a business leader whose means of amassing a personal fortune contributed positively to the country in some way
Born into a penniless family, built the steel empire (rags to riches). Carnegie built his industry using vertical integration and the Bessemer practice
A technique that involved injecting air into molten iron to remove the carbon and other impurities. Used by Carnegie
Buying out one's suppliers in order to control the raw materials and transportation systems. Ex. Carnegie
Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest monopoly known in history.
Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller
Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.
Companies that hold a majority of another company's stock in order to control the management of that company. Can be used to establish a monopoly.
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone
Invented the light bulb
A banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was one of the "Robber barons"
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Knights of Labor
A labor union that sought to organize all workers and focused on broad social reforms (was seen as bad because of the Haymarket riot; made unions look bad). Any worker was allowed to join skilled or unskilled.
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions. Only allowed for SKILLED workers that were men to be in this union. (made unions look better)
Haymarket Square Riot
A demonstration of striking laborers in Chicago in 1886 that turned violent. Made unions (knights of labor) look bad because a policeman was killed during this riot.
Strike at Andrew Carnegie's steel plant in which Pinkerton detectives clashed with steelworkers. Made unions look better because many workers were killed during the strike.
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union (ARU) refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing.
Panic of 1893
Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Jane Addams (Hull House)
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
Social Gospel Movement
preached salvation through service to the poor
Was the movement to ban alcohol, was a grassroots movement
Prohibition of alcohol
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
March 1911 fire in New York factory that trapped young women workers inside locked exit doors; nearly 50 ended up jumping to their death; while 100 died inside the factory; led to the establishment of many factory reforms, including increasing safety precautions for workers
1906 - Journalists who searched for corruption in politics and big business
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Meat Inspection Act
1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
Allows the federal government to collect income tax
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
Federal Reserve Act
a 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply
Clayton Antitrust Act
1914 law that strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act
National American Women Suffrage Association
a group formed by leading suffragist in the late 1800s to organize the women's suffrage movement. Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
Gave women the right to vote
Government activities seeking to dissolve corporate trusts and monopolies (Theodore Roosevelt)
Election of 1912
Presidential campaign involving Taft, T. Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson. Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote, enabling Wilson to win
Federal Trade Commission
a federal agency established in 1914 to investigate and stop unfair business practices
"White Man's Burden"
idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
Alfred Thayer Mahan
a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I. Several ships were named USS Mahan, including the lead vessel of a class of destroyers. His research into naval History led to his most important work, The Influence of Seapower Upon History,1660-1783, published in 1890
1894 wealthy, plantation owner and politician who was named President of New Republic of Hawaii. He asked US to annex Hawaii.
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
The ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War (the explosion is blamed on spanish)
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Treaty of Paris
(1898) the treaty that ended the Spanish American war. Stated that Cuba would be free from Spain.
-Cuba could not make treaties that might limit its independence or permit a foreign power to control any part of its territory
-The United States reserved the right to intervene
-Cuba was not to go into debt that its government could not repay
-The United States could buy or lease land on the island for naval stations and refueling stations (Guantanamo Bay)
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
(TR) , The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.
Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Helped Nicaragua
A formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another's defense
not taking sides in wars between other nations
Committee on Public Information
War Industries Board
League of Nations
Treaty of Versailles
Sacco and Vanzetti Case
Buying On Margin
Bonus Expeditionary Force
Civilian Conservation Corps
Tennessee Valley Authority
Agricultural Adjustment Act
National Recovery Administration
NRA Blue Eagle
Father Charles Coughlin
"Share Our Wealth" Program
Works Progress Administration
National Labor Relations Act
Social Security Act
Securities and Exchange Commission
"Packing the Court"
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