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Persuasion Chapter Eleven
Terms in this set (17)
four ways campaigns differ from single shot persuasive messages:
1) campaigns create "positions" in the audience's mind for the product, candidate, or idea
2) campaigns are intentionally designed to develop over time
3) campaigns dramatize the product, candidate, idea, or ideology for the audience
4) campaigns use sophisticated communication technologies to reach target prospects
similarities among types of campaigns
- all occur over time
- most are targeted and use mass media to accomplish their goals
- several high profile individuals are usually present in person and idea and propaganda campaigns, but not necessarily in product-oriented campaigns
the successful campaign must also educate and prepare the consumer. voter, or joiner to take action by:
-zeroing in on well-defined goals
- create appropriate strategies to accomplish the goals, and then
- use various tactics to put the strategy into action
models for explaining stages in campaigns
The Yale Five-Stage Developmental ModelProduct-Focused ModelsPolitically Oriented Campaign ModelsIdea/Ideological CampaignsSymbolic Convergence Theory
yale five stage development model
Identification-establishing a position in the minds of consumers, voters, and potential converts.
Legitimacy-being considered a worthy, believable, and trustworthy brand, candidate, or cause.
Participation-the recruitment and involvement of previously uncommitted persons.
Penetration-the point at which a person, product, or idea has earned a meaningful share of the market, electorate, or other constituency.
Distribution- the campaign or movement is succeeding and rewarding supporters in some way.
product focused models
The Hierarchy of Effects Model - an advertising and marketing persuasion model which assumes that potential customers must pass through a series of seven stages leading to the ultimate purchase.
The Positioning Model -a way to attract prospects by positioning the brand, candidate, or idea/ideology into top of mind awareness (T.O.M.A.) among consumers, voters, or joiners.
hierarchy of effects model
•Identification Stage -the persuader's first task is to identify current patterns of use of similar products, brands, or services using focus groups.
•Awareness Stage -building prospect awareness of their own brand as a superior competitor.
•Developing Knowledge Stage -the ads teach consumers about the brand, and researchers use tests to discover consumers' knowledge.
•Liking and Preferring Stages - image ads are used to convince prospective customer to like and prefer their brand.
•Conviction and Purchase Stages -consumers are convinced that the brand deserves a try and then go out and purchase it.
positions for achieving toma (top of mind awareness)
•Be the First or Be the Best
•Be the Least or Most Expensive
•Tell What You're Not
•Position by Gender
•Position by Age
politically oriented campaign models
•The Communicative Functions Model
•Four Campaign Strategy Types Model
the communicative functions model (as applied to presidential politics) consists of four stages:
surfacing stage, winnowing stage, nomination stage, election stage
four campaign strategy types model
•Message Sequence Strategy -addresses the order in which various campaign messages should be sent out.
•Timing and Intensity Strategy -suggests when messages should go out, and how much effort, money, and other resources should be dedicated to each phase of the campaign. •Mobilization and Persuasion Strategy -focuses on reaching out to and convincing groups of voters who might be favorable to the candidate.
•Opportunity Strategy -allows the campaign to respond to the unexpected events, opportunities, or threats that inevitably arise.
social movements model
agitation and control model
diffusion of innovation model
characteristics of the social movements model
•Social movements are organized into groups of people, with leaders who usually act as spokespersons for the movement;
•Are not institutionalized or recognized by those in power;
•Attract large numbers of persons and are large in scope either geographically or historically;
•Either promote or oppose social change;
characteristics social movemetns model (continued)
CONT.)•Are moralistic, preaching about good versus evil, right versus wrong, or patriotism versus opposition to the government policy;
•Encounter opposition from those in power; and
•Use persuasion as the essential tool for attracting new converts, changing people's minds, and ultimately motivating members to take action.
stages of social movements model
•Maintenance, and •Termination
stages of agitation and control model
•Promulgation (marketing of the movement)
•Nonviolent Resistance •Escalation
•Revolution (rarely happens)
the diffusion of innovation model
•Decision, Adoption, and Trial Stage
•Confirmation and Evaluation Stage - in which they reconsider the adoption and measure its performance against their expectations.
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