intro to respiration part 1

1 / 124
boyle's law of breathing
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (124)
Pulmonary ventilation is part of what structure?The thorax (chest cavity)- where volume can be increased or decreasedDuring inspiration/inhalation is there an increase or a decrease in volume and a positive or negative pressure?There is an increase in volume which will result in a negative pressure in the lungs.During expiration/exhalation is there an increase or a decrease in volume and a positive or negative pressure?There is a decrease in volume with will result in a positive pressure in the lungs.Name the five elements of the respiratory passage in descending ordernasal and oral cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchiWhat forms a continuous open passage leading from the exterior to the lungs?The respiratory passageWhat are the four elements of the vocal tract?Nasal, oral, pharyngeal cavities, and larynxWhat do the nasal, oral and pharyngeal cavities do to the air prior to entering the lower respiratory tract by way of the larynx?The cavities, filter, moisten, and warm the air prior to its entering the lower respiratory tractLarynxHighly specialized valvular mechanism that may open or close the air passagewayWhat is an extremely important function of the larynxan extremely important function of the larynx is to serve as a protective deviceWhat will a sudden release of compressed air produce in the larynx?a sudden release of compressed air produce an explosive exhalation that will clear the passageway of threatening mucus or a foreign object in the larynxThoracic fixationincreased abdominal pressure from constipation, urination or heavy liftingWhat highly specialized biological organ is capable of utilizing expire air for the production of voice?LarynxWhat extends from the larynx?The tracheaAt what level cervical vertebra does the trachea extend to the bronchi?the trachea extends from the larynx at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra to the bronchiWhat is the Trachea composed of?The Trachea is composed of 16-20 hoseshoe or "C" shaped rings of hyaline cartilageThe hyaline cartilage is placed one above the other and is separated by a small space that is occupied by _______?The hyaline cartilage is placed one above the other and is separated by a small space that is occupied by a fibroelastic membraneDoes the trachea lie in direct contact with esophagus?Yes, the trachea lies in direct contact with esophagusTrue or false, each tracheal ring is complete in back where the trachea lies in direct contact with esophagus.False, each tracheal ring is INCOMPLETE in back where the trachea lies in direct contact with esophagus.The first tracheal cartilage is slightly larger than the rest and is connected with the inferior border of the ______?The first tracheal cartilage is slightly larger than the rest and is connected with the inferior border of the CRICOIDCricotracheal ligamentConnective tissue that binds the cricoid cartilage to the trachea at the first tracheal cartilageWhat takes place at the last cartilage of the trachea?The last cartilage of the trachea bifuractes, giving rise to the main stem bronchi (splits into two branches)How many fibrous membranes pass over the trachea?There are two fibrous membrane layers. One passes over the outer surface and another passes over the inner surfaceWhat is in the space between the two layers (rings) of the trachea?In the spaces between the rings, the two layers blend to form a single intratracheal membrane which connects the tracheal rings one with anotherWhat lines the trachea- continuous above with that of the larynx and below with that of the bronchi?Mucous membrane lines the trachea- continuous above with that of the larynx and below with that of the bronchiWhat is constantly in motion?ciliaWhat part of the body is used when we clear our throats, filter out mucus, smoke particles and dust?The tracheaAn incision made in the anterior neck about 1cm below the cricoid of the larynx is what operation?TracheotomyIn a tracheotomy, where is the trachea opened?Below the second and third tracheal cartilagesWhat forms the bronchial tree?Tubes that extend from the trachea to the lungsWhat are the three major groups of the bronchi?Main stem bronchi Secondary bronchi (supply lobes for the lung) Tertiary bronchi (supply segments of the lobes)What has similar construction to that of the trachea-imperfect cartilaginous rings that are bound together by fibroelastic tissue?BronchiWhat is the bronchi invested (covered) by?smooth muscle fibersWhat is the bronchi lined with?pseudostratified ciliated columnar epitheliumHow is the right bronchus (lung) divided?Three secondary bronchi- one for each lobe of the lungHow is the right bronchus (lung) subdivided?ten tertiary bronchi- each of which supplies a lung segmentHow is the left bronchus (lung) divided?two secondary bronchiHow is the left bronchus (lung) subdivided?eight tertiary bronchiTertiary bronchidivide repeatedly, becoming smaller and microscopicWhere does rapid exchanges of oxygen and carbon dioxide take place?In the bronchiolesWhere are bronchioles?the tertiary bronchiWhat do the bronchioles do?communicate directly with the alveolar ducts, and they in turn open into the minute air sacs of the lungsLungsTwo irregular cone shaped structuresWhere does the heart lie?between the lungsWhat closed membranous sac surrounds the heart?pericardiumwhat color are the lungs at birth?almost whitewhere do the lungs lie?freely withing their pleural cavitiesHow do the lungs attach to the body?by their roots (bronchi, pulmonary arteries and veinsWhich lung is shorter and broader with 3 lobes?right lungwhich lung is smaller with 2 lobes?left lungwhat is the left lung smaller?the heart occupies much of the left side of the thoracapextip of the lungbaseconforms to diaphramwhat lines the outside thoracic surface of the diaphram and mediastinum?parietal/costal pleurawhat invests (covers) the inside of the lungs?visceral pleurapleurisyinflamed pleurae, accounts for pain when breathingwhat links the thoracic walls to the lungs and has mechanical aspects?pleural membraneswhat is the function of the pleurae?to provide friction free lung and throacic surfacespleural linkagethroughout every breath cycle the lung surfaces are held tightly in contact with the inner surface of the thoracic wallsWhat three elements are the skeletal framework for breathing?vertebral/spinal column, rib cage, and pelvishow many individual vertebral are in the spinal column?32 or 33how many cervical are in the spinal column?7how many thoracic are in the spinal column?12What is the function of the thoracic 12?provides attachments for the ribshow many lumbar are in the spinal column?5what is the function of the lumbar 5?they are very large for weight bearinghow many sacral (sacrum) are in the spinal column ?5how many coccygeal are in the spinal column?3 or 4corpus/bodyunpaired cylindrical projectionspedicleslegsneural archoffers protection to the spinal cordwhat do the spines of the verebrae serve an attachment for?muscles and ligamentswhat do the spines of the vertebrae provide protection for?the vertebral columnAre the vertebrae able to articulate (move)?yesWhat are the five types of vertebrae?cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyxwhat does T7 stand for?seventh thoracicWhat does L5 stand for?fifth lumbarAtlasWhere the skull rests on C1What vertebra resembles a ring of bone and has no body or spinous process?C1 or atlasAxisC2- forms a pivot around which C1 and the skull rotateWhat vertebral bodies are unified by four ossified intervertebral discs?sacrum 5What are the four elements of the sternum (breastbone)?manubrium, sternal angle, corpus/body, xiphoid processmanubriumon each lateral border is a depression for articulation with the costal cartilage of the first ribsternal anglethe junction of the manubrium and the body of the sternumcorpus/body of sternumlateral borders connect the cartilages of ribs 2 through 7xiphoid processhangs from the inferior border of the sternumHow many pairs of ribs are in the rib cage?12What is barrel like in appearance?the rib cageshaftbulk (mass) of the ribhead of the ribseparated from the shaft by a short neck (narrow part)angle of the ribthe point where the rib changes directionwhere does the rib reach its lowest point?as the rib approaches the sternumwhat is there a sharp demarcation between on the rib?osseous and cartilaginous portion of the ribwhat articulates (joins) all 12 pairs of the ribs with the vertebral column?arthrodial or gliding jointstrue ribsribs 2-7- articulate (join) with the sternum by means of a true synovial jointfalse ribsribs 8, 9, and 10- indirectly connected to the sternum by means of long costal cartilagesduring inhalation, which direction do the ribs move during contraction of the diaphragm?vertical (up and down) dimensionduring inhalation, which direction does the thoracic cavity move during the raising of the curved ribs?transverse (across) diameterduring inhalation, what direction do the ribs move by the simultaneous forward and upward movement of the sternum?anteroposterior (relating to or directed toward both front and back)when the ribs are elevated, their anterior extermeties are moved_____?forward and laterallyinspiratorymuscles that RAISE the ribsexpiratorymuscles that lower the ribspaired hipform the pelvic girdlesacrum and coccyxform the bony pevlisacetabulum (vinegar cup)forms the sock for the head of the femuriliumgreat bulk of the hip bone, roughly fan shaped plateiliac crestupper margin of the pelvic girdlewhat is the contribution of the pelvis to speech production?through the muscles that constitute the abdominal wall and have attachments on the illiumthe pelvis functions as a bis and provides a floor for the _____?abdominal viscera (main cavity)pectoral girdlea supportive structure that provides attachment for the upper limbs to the torsowhat two bones form the pectoral girdle?clavicle and scapulaclavicalcollarbone; projects the scapula far laterally to clear the chest wallscapulathin triangular plate of boneglenoidthe articular facet for the upper arm bone-humerushow does the scapula attach to the axial skeleton?by way of the clavicle (acromion)