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Ap Euro Chapter 14 Review
Terms in this set (43)
Spanish New World conquerors - Especially conquerors of Mexico and Peru - they often underhandedly used Native American political factions to their best advantage.
Spanish & Portuguese small, ocean-going ships of the 15th - 17th centuries. Caravels were fast & maneuverable, three masts with triangular sails, large cargo hold, & stern rudder.
2nd century cartography rediscovered by Muslim scholars - Copies found their way to the West and were updated and used by the early European explorers.
a descriptive atlas of the Middle Ages, giving sailing directions and providing charts showing the location of ports and various coastal features.
Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494
Pope Alexander VI intervened between Spain and Portugal by drawing a line of longitude in the mid Atlantic. Territories to the west of the longitude line would be Spanish, east of the line Portuguese.
Mexica Empire (Aztec)
the Emperor of the Aztecs was held captive by Hernan Cortes; Cortes conquered the wealthy Mexica Empire and their capital of Tenochtitlan ,Montezuma
Their Emperor Atahualpa had come to power at Cuzco which is the Incan. In the capital the Incas lived high in the Andes and had a sophisticated civilization. The Inca had been weakened by disease and civil war
New World centers of Spanish Administration - Viceroyalty of New Spain in Mexico City; and Viceroyalty of Peru at Lima.
Spanish New World legal system used to regulate the Native Americans. The system had widespread abuses - Charles V ordered reforms in 1531 (widely ignored).
unknown diseases wiped out populations, the ultimate effect of the "New World" discovery was that world population grew .Other plants arrived by accident like the dandelion. The migration of peoples to the New World led to an exchange of animals, plants, and diseases. Change of cultures and other stuff from the places
in the triangular trade in which millions of Africans were forcibly transported to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade.
A school of thought founded on doubt that total certainty or the definitive is ever attainable. The skeptic is cautious and critical and suspends judgment.
suggests that one culture is not necessarily superior to another, just different.
New Technology for crossing oceans:
Improved Astrolabe and Quadrant, and the Stern rudder ,the Magnetic Needle Compass, the Caravel, better maps and cartography
Opens a school for navigators; His goal was to sail around Africa and reach Asia and find gold, slaves, and an overseas trade route to the spice markets of Asia. Sent people out from Portugal was the king of Portugal ,
rounded the Cape of Good Hope , in 1487
Vasco da Gama
the voyage began with 4 ships and 170 men but it ended with one ship and a handful of men ,the value of his cargo is valued at 50 times the entire cost of the voyage, Sailed to Calicut India ,
Attempted to sail around South America to reach the spice trade. Along the way he discovered that Brazil was east of the Treaty of Tordesillas line. Cabral claimed this land for Portugal.
First person to reach the new world (Americas); Took 4 voyages and took
many people to settle for Spain. Believed he had reached island off the coast of China and Japan, not the Americas
sailed the northern coast of South America for Spain; realized that Columbus had discovered what Vespucci called a "New World".
Vasco de Balboa
Spanish conquistador and explorer; Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama and was the first European to see the Pacific Ocean from the New World; claimed the Pacific Ocean and all its shores for Spain.
He wanted to sail west to Asia and continue to sail west to Spain, circumnavigating the world; sailed south along the east coast of South America; Ship supplies grew short; The men on board had to eat rats; Died from an arrow to the foot and a spear to the chest. Loaded up on guns and became merchant famous , traveled westward
Ponce de Leon
Was on Columbus's 2nd voyage; deputy governor of Hispaniola; exploited gold deposits on the island of Borinquen, and then colonized it and renamed it Puerto Rico; searched through the Bahamas for mythical fountain of youth; returned to Florida to establish a colony but was wounded and died of injuries
Gambled everything for fame and fortune; Crossed the Gulf of Mexico from Cub to Mexico; Cortes held captive Montezuma, the Emperor of the Aztecs; Conquered the Aztec.
Hernan Cortes' Native American translator for his conquest of the Mexico (Aztecs)
crushed the Incan Empire of Peru with less resources than Cortes; The Incas lived high in the Andes & had a sophisticated civilization.
Bartoleme Las Casas
Critic of Encomienda System; documented brutality at
of natives; asserted natives had human rights, appealed to the king to intervene and Charles
V abuses of encomienda system
sailed for England; he was funded by Italian bankers in London; Discovered Newfoundland and explored the New England Coast.
Sailed up to the St. Lawrence River. Tried to colonize new York and new jersey but it was taking over by the British .
Some believe that he explored the Pacific Coast of North America; 7 voyages of diplomatic and trade exploration; Reached East Africa, Egypt, the Middle East, and India; Chinese exploration ended when a new emperor closed the door and turned China inward.
made a famous journey on Haj to Mecca , got kingdom of mali , and got great prestidue
The Ottoman's gained control of the sea trade of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea; European trade concern was raised and discussion and plans of establishing new trade routes free of Ottoman control became a trade necessity.
Juan de Pareja
Biracial Spanish artist employed by master artist Diego Velazquez who painted a famous portrait of Pareja.
sold into slavery at age 11; after gaining freedom, he spoke out against slavery and published his autobiography. African , wrote an autobiography , and wrote a narrative of his time in the slave trade to show the horrors of the slave trade
Kingdom of Mali - Saharan trade city, center of Muslim learning
Conquered in 1453 by the (Ottoman Turks later renamed Istanbul.
Island of Hispaniola
Center of Spanish colonial administration - the island today shared by the modern nations of Haiti & the Dominican Republic
Mexica Empire; advanced in math, astronomy, and engineering. Founded by Cortes; Capital of the Viceroyalty of New Spain
The capital of the wealthy Mexica Empire (Aztec); Conquered by Hernan Cortes.
Capital of the Incan Empire, became Lima, Peru
Genoa & Venice
The two trading cities served as the middlemen for eastern trade since the Middle Ages . Genoa dominated the northern trade routes through the Black Sea
Genoa also provided shipping in the western Mediterranean; Venice limited their eastern imports to keep prices high. Pre Columbus days and Marco polos days
Indian ocean dominated the trade
What was the trade network called
What were some new technologies created during this time?
1) Magnetic Needle Compass
2) Improved Astrolabe and Quadrant
3) The Caravel
4) Stern Rubber
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