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34 terms

Civil War Vocabulary # 1

Key terms form Civil War & Reconstruction study guide
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13th Amendment
abolished slavery in the United States
Ku Klux Klan
secret organization of whites who intimidated blacks (and later Jews, immigrants, etc.)
sharecropper
person who farms on someone else's land and pays part of the crop for the rent (became another way of slavery)
Freedman's Bureau
government program giving food & shelter (40 acres land & mule) to former slaves to get them on their feet
Confederate States of America
southern states who broke away (seceded) from the Union
Emancipation Proclamation
statement by Union president, Abraham Lincoln, that proclaimed freedom for slaves in states that were in rebellion against the Union
Uncle Tom's Cabin
anti-slavery book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe about the evils of slavery
Anaconda Plan
Union plan during the Civil War for a naval blockade shaped like a snake squeezing the South
Underground Railroad
secret network of escape routes to smuggle run-away slaves to freedom in the North
Fugitive Slave Act
law that made it illegal to help runaway slaves even in North
poll tax
money paid in order to vote; used in Southern states to stop blacks from voting beginning during Reconstruction
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
Dred Scott
slave who sued for his freedom; Supreme Court ruled slaves are not citizens but property
Harriet Tubman
former slave who helped slaves escape on the Underground Railroad, nicknamed black Moses
John Brown
abolitionist who led forces in Bleeding Kansas as well as a raid on Harper's Ferry, Virginia to get weapons
carpetbaggers
Northern politicians who came to the South to ask for votes
Harper's Ferry
place where John Brown tried to raid the federal arsenal to arm slaves for a rebellion
abolitionist
person working against slavery
Robert E. Lee
General of the Confederates (South) during the Civil War
14th Amendment
amendment granting citizenship to "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" which included former slaves
15th Amendment
says that the right of citizens of the U.S. to vote shall not be denied by anyone or any state on account of race, color, or being a slave before
Stephen Douglas
Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the Kansas-Nebraska Act; believed in states' rights
free soiler
a person dedicated to preventing the expansion of slavery into the western territories by moving there
Harriet Beecher Stowe
woman author of Uncle Tom's Cabin, a book about a slave who is treated badly which persuaded more people, particularly Northerners, to become anti-slavery
Know Nothings
the American Party; anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic
Clara Barton
Nurse during the Civil War; started the American Red Cross
Ulysses S. Grant
General of the Union Army credited for winning the Civil War for the North
Stonewall Jackson
Confederate general who earned his nickname for standing firm at the Battle of Bull Run
Gettysburg
battle of the American Civil War that was a turning point for the North since they finally won a major fight
Underground Railroad
a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada
secede
to formally leave the union
Kansas-Nebraska Act
created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people living in those territories the right to choose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty (voting)
conscription
forced military service
Gettysburg Address
a famous speech delivered by Abraham Lincoln in Nov. 1863 at the dedication of a national cemetary on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg