How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

90 terms

Medical Terminology - Chapter 4

STUDY
PLAY
Abductor
Muscle that leads a limb away from the body.
Adductor
Muscle that leads a limb toward the body.
Adrenal glands
Endocrine glands above the kidney.
Anabolism
Process of building up proteins in cells.
Analysis
Separation of a substance into various parts.
Anoxia
Without oxygen.
Ante cibum (a.c.)
Before meals.
Anteflexion
Bending forward.
Antepartum
Before birth.
Antibiotic
Against life (germ life). Antibiotics are drugs given to combat bacteria.
Antibody
Proteins made by white blood cells to destroy antigens.
Antigen
Substance (protein) that stimulates the production of antibodies.
Antisepsis
Destruction of microorganisms to prevent infection.
Antitoxin
Substance produced against a toxin (poison); an antibody.
Apnea
Without breathing.
Autoimmune disease
Antibodies that are produced against an individual's own normal cells.
Benign
Non-cancerous.
Bifurcation
Branching or forking into two parts.
Bilateral
Pertaining to both or two sides.
Bradycardia
Slow heart beat, usually less than 60 beats per minute.
Congenital anomaly
Abnormality present at birth; birth defect.
Connective tissue
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues and parts. Examples are bones, cartilage, muscle, or fibrous tissues.
Contraindication
A factor that prohibits the administration of a drug or procedure in the care of a patient.
Contralateral
Affecting the opposite side of a part of the body.
Dehydration
Excessive loss of water.
Dialysis
Separation of nitrogenous wastes from the blood when the kidneys no longer function.
Diameter
Distance between opposite parts on the circumference of a structure.
Diarrhea
Diarrhea is the frequent passage of watery, loose stools.
Dysplasia
Condition of abnormal formation.
Dyspnea
Difficult breathing.
Ectopic pregnancy
A pregnancy that is outside the uterus.
Endocardium
The inner lining of the heart.
Endoscope
Instrument to visually examine within the body; bronchoscope.
Endotracheal
Pertaining to within the trachea.
Epithelium
Layer of cells covering the external surface of the body and lining the hollow tubes within the body.
Euphoria
Condition of exaggerated well-being ("good feeling").
Euthyroid
Normal thyroid function.
Exophthalmos
Eyeballs that protrude from their sockets; associated with hyperthyroidism.
Hemiglossectomy
Removal (resection) of half the tongue.
Hyperglycemia
Condition of excessive or high blood pressure; diabetes mellitus.
Hyperplasia
Condition of increased formation of cells.
Hypertrophy
Condition of increased development when individual cells increase in size.
Hypodermic injection
Placement of a needle below the skin.
Hypoglycemia
Condition of decreased sugar in the blood; low blood sugar.
Infracostal
Pertaining to below the ribs.
Insomniac
Pertaining to without sleep; an insomniac is a person who cannot sleep.
Intercostal
Pertaining to between the ribs.
Intravenous
Pertaining to within a vein.
Macrocephaly
Condition of a larger than normal head.
Malaise
General feeling of bodily discomfort.
Malignant
Cancerous; harmful.
Metacarpal bones
Hand bones.
Metamorphosis
Condition of change of shape or form.
Metastasis
Spread of a malignant tumor beyond its original location to a distant site.
Microscope
Instrument to view small projects.
Neonatal
Pertaining to a newborn infant.
Neoplasm
New growth.
Pancytopenia
Deficiency of all cells (blood cells).
Paralysis
Destruction of nerve tissue leading to loss of sensation or motion in a part of the body.
Parathyroid glands
Four endocrine glands on the posterior (dorsal) region of the thyroid gland.
Percutaneous
Pertaining to through the skin.
Periosteum
Membrane surrounding a bone.
Polymorphonuclear
Pertaining to a nucleus with several or many shapes. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are white blood cells with a multilobed nucleus.
Polyneuritis
Inflammation of many nerves.
Postmortem
After death.
Postpartum
After birth.
Precancerous
Pertaining to occurring before a malignant condition.
Prenatal
Pertaining to before birth.
Prodrome
Symptom that appears before the onset of a more serious an illness. An example of a prodrome is the fever that signals the onset of a viral illness.
Prolapse
Sliding forward or downward.
Pseudocyesis
False pregnancy.
Recombinant DNA
Insertion of a gene (region of DNA) from an organism into the DNA of another organism.
Relapse
Sliding or falling back; as in recurrence of symptoms or decline after apparent recovery.
Remission
Literally, to send back to good health; disappearance of disease symptoms.
Retroflexion
Bending backward.
Retroperitoneal
Pertaining to behind the peritoneum (membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity).
Subacute
Between acute (sharp, sudden, severe) and chronic (lasting over a long period of time with little change of symptoms).
Subcutaneous
Pertaining to under the skin.
Suprapubic
Pertaining to above the pelvic bone.
Symbiosis
Close association between organisms of different species or a state in which two people are emotionally dependent on each other.
Symmetry
Equality of parts, literally measured together.
Symphysis
Literally, to grow together.
Syndactyly
Fusion of fingers or toes; a congenital anomaly.
Syndrome
Group of symptoms that occur together indicating a particular condition or disorder.
Synthesis
Literally, to put (-thesis) together (syn-).
Tachypnea
Rapid breathing.
Transfusion
Literally, to pour (-fusion) across (trans-); transference of blood from person to another.
Transurethral
Pertaining to across or through the urethra.
Ultrasonography
The prefix ultra- means beyond or excessive; sonography is the process of recording sound waves. Ultrasonography is the use of high frequency sound waves that are beyond the range of normal hearing to produce a record or picture of an organ or tissue.
Unilateral
Pertaining to one side.