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Medical Terminology - Chapter 5
Passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine and into the bloodstream.
Absence of hydrochloric acid from the gastric juice.
The chief constituents of proteins, these are acids that contribute to protein synthesis. Amino acids are formed when large proteins molecules are digested.
The enzyme that digests or breaks down starch into simple substance.
An opening between two tubular organs.
The opening of the rectum to the outside of the body.
Removal or excision of the appendix.
Inflammation of the appendix.
Small, slender sac near the beginning of the colon in the RLQ of the abdomen.
Yellow or organ fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It travels from the gallbladder into the small intestines to help digest fats.
Pertaining to bile or affecting the bile ducts. Bile ducts empty bile into the small intestine (duodenum).
A yellow-orange pigment found in bile.
Intestine. The large bowel is called the colon and the small bowel is the small intestine.
Mucous membrane lining the cheek.
Four point, dog-like (canine means dog) teeth. Each canine or cusped tooth is third from the midline of the jaw.
Pertaining to the cecum, which is the first part of the large intestine (colon).
First part of the large intestine (colon).
Pertaining to the abdomen.
Inflammation of the hip.
Excision or removal of the gallbladder.
Abnormal condition of stones in the common bile duct.
Surgical anastomosis (create a new opening) between the common bile duct and the jejunum.
Incision of the common bile duct.
Abnormal condition of forming gallstones.
Large intestine (bowel).
Pertaining to the colon.
Visual endoscopic examination of the colon.
New opening of the colon through the abdominal wall to the outside of the body.
Common bile duct
Tube carrying bile from the gallbladder and liver into the first part of the small intestine.
Eliminating of wastes and undigested foods through the rectum.
Pertaining to the cheek and teeth.
The chief substance of teeth; surrounding the pulp and covered by enamel of the crown.
The process of breaking down complex foods into simpler substances that can be absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine.
Pertaining to the duodenum.
The first part of the small intestine.
Painful inflammation of the intestines, usually the colon.
Discharge from the body of indigestible materials or wastes.
Breakdown of large fat globules into smaller, digestible particles.
White, compact and hard substance covering the substance (dentin) of the crown of the tooth.
A dentist specializing in the inner parts of the tooth.
Inflammation of the small intestine and colon.
New surgical connection between parts of the small intestine and colon; anastomosis.
Protein that speeds up the rate of the biochemical reaction. The suffix -ase means enzyme.
Pertaining to the esophagus.
Tube that carries food from the pharynx (throat) to the stomach.
Substances that are produced when fats are digested. They combine with glycerol to form fat.
Pertaining to the face.
Solid wastes; stools.
Small sac lying below the liver, in which bile is stored.
The tubular system relating to the stomach and intestine beginning with the mouth and ending with the anus.
New surgical opening between the stomach and the jejunum; an anastomosis. The procedure is part of a gastric bypass surgery.
New opening of the stomach through the abdominal wall to the outside of the body.
Inflammation of gums.
Process of producing new sugar from fats and proteins; occurs mainly in the liver.
Simple sugar necessary as a source of energy for body cells.
Storage form of glucose (sugar); it produces glucose when it is broken down (glycogenolysis) in liver cells.
Breakdown of glycogen to release sugar.
Tumor (malignant) of liver cells; hepatocellular carcinoma.
Enlargement of the liver.
Strong acid, present in a dilute form in the stomach; aids digestion.
High levels of bilirubin (yellow/orange pigment) in the bloodstream; jaundice.
High levels of sugar in the bloodstream; diabetes mellitus.
Pertaining to under the tongue.
Inflammation of the ileum (third part of the small intestine).
Ring of muscles that are between the ileum and the cecum (first part of the large intestine).
Surgical construction of an artificial opening from the ileum to the outside of the body through the abdominal wall.
Third (and final) portion of the small intestine.
One of the four front teeth on either jaw.
Hormone secreted by specialized cells in the pancreas. Insulin facilitates transport of sugar from the blood into body cells.
Second part of the small intestine.
Pertaining to the lip.
Laparoscopy visual (endoscopic) examination of the abdomen and abdominal organs through small abdominal incisions.
Enzyme (-ase) that digests fats; produced by cells in the pancreas and secreted into the duodenum.
Formation of stone (calculi).
Large, reddish-brown organ in the right upper quadrant (RUQ) of the abdomen. It secretes bile, forms blood proteins and metabolizes fats, proteins and sugars.
Lower esophageal sphincter
Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach.
Process of chewing.
Membrane that holds the intestine together; a fold of the peritoneum attaching the small intestine to the dorsal (back) body wall.
Sixth, seventh and eighth teeth from the middle or either side of the dental arch. The most posterior molar is known as the wisdom tooth.
Pertaining to the mouth.
Dentist specializing in straightening teeth.
Roof of the mouth; hard palate is the front bony portion and the soft palate is the posterior fleshy part near the throat.
A procedure used to treat cases of snoring or sleep apnea caused by obstructions in the throat or nose.
Surgical repair of the palate.
Gland under and behind and the stomach; produces enzymes to digest foods and the hormone insulin to transport sugar to cells.
Inflammation of the pancreas.
Small elevations on the surface of the tongue containing taste buds.
Pertaining to by some route other than through the gastrointestinal tract, as by intravenous injection.
Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear.
Pertaining to surrounding the anus.
Dentist specializing in treating the gums.
Inflammation of the peritoneum.
Rhythm-like contractions of the tubes of the gastrointestinal tract and other tubular structures.
Pertaining to the pharynx or throat.
Throat; the common passageway for food from the mouth.
Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines.
Either of the two teeth on each side of each jaw, just behind the canine teeth and in front of the molars.
Specialist in the study of the anus and the rectum.
Enzyme that digests protein.
Soft tissue with a tooth containing nerves and blood vessels.
Ring of muscles that surround the opening of the stomach to the duodenum.
Surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter.
Distal region of the stomach near the duodenum.
Hernia of the wall of the rectum.
Final section of the colon.
Folds or creases in the mucous membrane of the stomach or the hard palate of the mouth.
Enzyme-containing digestive juice secreted by salivary glands.
Three pairs of exocrine glands secreting saliva into the mouth; parotid glands, sublingual glands, and submandibular glands.
Inflammation of a salivary gland.
Salivary gland stone; lodged in a saliva gland or duct.
Distal, lower end of the colon.
Visual endoscopic examination of the sigmoid colon.
Circular ring of muscle that surrounds an opening or orifice.
Discharge of fat in the feces due to improper digestion and malabsorption of fat.
Inflammation of the mouth.
Pertaining to under the tongue.
Pertaining to under the lower jaw (mandible).
Chief form of fat (lipids) in body cells; composed of three molecules of fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol.
Small, fleshy mass hanging from the soft palate at the back of the mouth.
Removal (excision) of the uvula.
Fingerlike, microscopic projections on the inner surface of the small intestine; sites of absorption of foods and fluids.
Failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) to relax; dilation of the esophagus and loss of peristalsis occurs.
Abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus.
Lack of appetite.
Inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers; canker sores.
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.
Rumbling or gurgling noise produced by hyperactive movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal tract.
Abnormal condition of gallstones.
Chronic, degenerative disease of the liver.
Benign growths protrude from the mucous membrane lining the colon.
Adenocarcinoma of the colon or the rectum or both.
Difficulty in passing (eliminating) feces (stool).
Inflammatory bowel disease marked by diarrhea, pain, fever, weakness and weight loss.
Frequent passage of loose, watery stools.
Small, pouch-like herniations through the muscular wall of a tubular organ such as the colon.
Inflammation of diverticula; abdominal pain and rectal bleeding are symptoms.
Abnormal condition of diverticula without inflammation.
Difficulty in swallowing.
Gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth.
Swollen, twisted veins at the lower end of the esophagus.
Study of the cause of disease.
Gas expelled through the anus.
Malignant tumor of the stomach; stomach cancer.
Backflow of solids and liquid against its normal direction of disease movement.
Passage of bright red blood from the rectum.
Swollen, twisted varicose veins in the rectal region.
Inflammation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpes virus. Painful, fluid-filled blisters are produced by the infection and known as cold sores or fever blisters.
Protrusion of the upper portion of the stomach upward through the diaphragm.
Jaundice; yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood.
Pertaining to unknown cause of disease.
Failure of peristalsis with obstruction of the intestines.
Inflammatory bowel disease
Severe inflammation of the small and large intestine (colon); examples are Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis.
A small loop of the bowel protrudes through a weakened lower abdominal muscle.
One portion of the intestine slips into an adjoining part; telescoping of the intestines.
Irritable bowel syndrome
Group of gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, and bloating) associated with stress and tension.
A symptom of illness marked by yellow-orange discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes resulting from excess bilirubin in the blood.
Black, tarry stools; feces containing blood.
Unpleasant sensation in the stomach with a tendency to vomit.
White plaques or patches on the mucous membranes of the mouth.
Inflammation of the pancreas.
Inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone.
Open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum.
Inflammation of the colon and rectum with the presence of ulcers; an inflammatory bowel disease.
Inflammation of the liver caused by a virus.
Twisting of the intestine upon itself.