How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

169 terms

Medical Terminology - Chapter 5

STUDY
PLAY
Absorption
Passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine and into the bloodstream.
Achlorhydria
Absence of hydrochloric acid from the gastric juice.
Amino acids
The chief constituents of proteins, these are acids that contribute to protein synthesis. Amino acids are formed when large proteins molecules are digested.
Amylase
The enzyme that digests or breaks down starch into simple substance.
Anastomosis
An opening between two tubular organs.
Anus
The opening of the rectum to the outside of the body.
Appendectomy
Removal or excision of the appendix.
Appendicitis
Inflammation of the appendix.
Appendix
Small, slender sac near the beginning of the colon in the RLQ of the abdomen.
Bile
Yellow or organ fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It travels from the gallbladder into the small intestines to help digest fats.
Biliary
Pertaining to bile or affecting the bile ducts. Bile ducts empty bile into the small intestine (duodenum).
Bilirubin
A yellow-orange pigment found in bile.
Bowel
Intestine. The large bowel is called the colon and the small bowel is the small intestine.
Buccal mucosa
Mucous membrane lining the cheek.
Canine teeth
Four point, dog-like (canine means dog) teeth. Each canine or cusped tooth is third from the midline of the jaw.
Cecal
Pertaining to the cecum, which is the first part of the large intestine (colon).
Cecum
First part of the large intestine (colon).
Celiac
Pertaining to the abdomen.
Cheilitis
Inflammation of the hip.
Cholecystectomy
Excision or removal of the gallbladder.
Choledocholithiasis
Abnormal condition of stones in the common bile duct.
Choledochojejunostomy
Surgical anastomosis (create a new opening) between the common bile duct and the jejunum.
Choledochotomy
Incision of the common bile duct.
Cholelithiasis
Abnormal condition of forming gallstones.
Colon
Large intestine (bowel).
Colonic
Pertaining to the colon.
Colonoscopy
Visual endoscopic examination of the colon.
Colostomy
New opening of the colon through the abdominal wall to the outside of the body.
Common bile duct
Tube carrying bile from the gallbladder and liver into the first part of the small intestine.
Defecation
Eliminating of wastes and undigested foods through the rectum.
Deglutition
Swallowing.
Dentibuccal
Pertaining to the cheek and teeth.
Dentin
The chief substance of teeth; surrounding the pulp and covered by enamel of the crown.
Digestion
The process of breaking down complex foods into simpler substances that can be absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine.
Duodenal
Pertaining to the duodenum.
Duodenum
The first part of the small intestine.
Dysentery
Painful inflammation of the intestines, usually the colon.
Elimination
Discharge from the body of indigestible materials or wastes.
Emulsification
Breakdown of large fat globules into smaller, digestible particles.
Enamel
White, compact and hard substance covering the substance (dentin) of the crown of the tooth.
Endodontist
A dentist specializing in the inner parts of the tooth.
Enterocolitis
Inflammation of the small intestine and colon.
Enterocolostomy
New surgical connection between parts of the small intestine and colon; anastomosis.
Enzyme
Protein that speeds up the rate of the biochemical reaction. The suffix -ase means enzyme.
Esophageal
Pertaining to the esophagus.
Esophagus
Tube that carries food from the pharynx (throat) to the stomach.
Fatty acids
Substances that are produced when fats are digested. They combine with glycerol to form fat.
Facial
Pertaining to the face.
Feces
Solid wastes; stools.
Gallbladder
Small sac lying below the liver, in which bile is stored.
Gastrointestinal tract
The tubular system relating to the stomach and intestine beginning with the mouth and ending with the anus.
Gastrojejunostomy
New surgical opening between the stomach and the jejunum; an anastomosis. The procedure is part of a gastric bypass surgery.
Gastrostomy
New opening of the stomach through the abdominal wall to the outside of the body.
Gingivitis
Inflammation of gums.
Gluconeogenesis
Process of producing new sugar from fats and proteins; occurs mainly in the liver.
Glucose
Simple sugar necessary as a source of energy for body cells.
Glycogen
Storage form of glucose (sugar); it produces glucose when it is broken down (glycogenolysis) in liver cells.
Glycogenolysis
Breakdown of glycogen to release sugar.
Hepatoma
Tumor (malignant) of liver cells; hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatomegaly
Enlargement of the liver.
Hydrochloric acid
Strong acid, present in a dilute form in the stomach; aids digestion.
Hyperbilirubinemia
High levels of bilirubin (yellow/orange pigment) in the bloodstream; jaundice.
Hyperglycemia
High levels of sugar in the bloodstream; diabetes mellitus.
Hypoglossal
Pertaining to under the tongue.
Ileitis
Inflammation of the ileum (third part of the small intestine).
Ileocecal sphincter
Ring of muscles that are between the ileum and the cecum (first part of the large intestine).
Ileostomy
Surgical construction of an artificial opening from the ileum to the outside of the body through the abdominal wall.
Ileum
Third (and final) portion of the small intestine.
Incisor
One of the four front teeth on either jaw.
Insulin
Hormone secreted by specialized cells in the pancreas. Insulin facilitates transport of sugar from the blood into body cells.
Jejunum
Second part of the small intestine.
Labial
Pertaining to the lip.
Laparoscopy
Laparoscopy visual (endoscopic) examination of the abdomen and abdominal organs through small abdominal incisions.
Lipase
Enzyme (-ase) that digests fats; produced by cells in the pancreas and secreted into the duodenum.
Lithogenesis
Formation of stone (calculi).
Liver
Large, reddish-brown organ in the right upper quadrant (RUQ) of the abdomen. It secretes bile, forms blood proteins and metabolizes fats, proteins and sugars.
Lower esophageal sphincter
Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach.
Mastication
Process of chewing.
Mesentery
Membrane that holds the intestine together; a fold of the peritoneum attaching the small intestine to the dorsal (back) body wall.
Molar teeth
Sixth, seventh and eighth teeth from the middle or either side of the dental arch. The most posterior molar is known as the wisdom tooth.
Oral
Pertaining to the mouth.
Orthodontist
Dentist specializing in straightening teeth.
Palate
Roof of the mouth; hard palate is the front bony portion and the soft palate is the posterior fleshy part near the throat.
Palatopharyngoplasty
A procedure used to treat cases of snoring or sleep apnea caused by obstructions in the throat or nose.
Palatoplasty
Surgical repair of the palate.
Pancreas
Gland under and behind and the stomach; produces enzymes to digest foods and the hormone insulin to transport sugar to cells.
Pancreatitis
Inflammation of the pancreas.
Papillae
Small elevations on the surface of the tongue containing taste buds.
Parenteral
Pertaining to by some route other than through the gastrointestinal tract, as by intravenous injection.
Parotid gland
Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear.
Perianal
Pertaining to surrounding the anus.
Periodontist
Dentist specializing in treating the gums.
Peritonitis
Inflammation of the peritoneum.
Peristalsis
Rhythm-like contractions of the tubes of the gastrointestinal tract and other tubular structures.
Pharyngeal
Pertaining to the pharynx or throat.
Pharynx
Throat; the common passageway for food from the mouth.
Portal vein
Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines.
Postprandial
After meals.
Premolar teeth
Either of the two teeth on each side of each jaw, just behind the canine teeth and in front of the molars.
Proctologist
Specialist in the study of the anus and the rectum.
Protease
Enzyme that digests protein.
Pulp
Soft tissue with a tooth containing nerves and blood vessels.
Pyloric sphincter
Ring of muscles that surround the opening of the stomach to the duodenum.
Pyloroplasty
Surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter.
Pylorus
Distal region of the stomach near the duodenum.
Rectocele
Hernia of the wall of the rectum.
Rectum
Final section of the colon.
Rugae
Folds or creases in the mucous membrane of the stomach or the hard palate of the mouth.
Saliva
Enzyme-containing digestive juice secreted by salivary glands.
Salivary glands
Three pairs of exocrine glands secreting saliva into the mouth; parotid glands, sublingual glands, and submandibular glands.
Sialadenitis
Inflammation of a salivary gland.
Sialolith
Salivary gland stone; lodged in a saliva gland or duct.
Sigmoid colon
Distal, lower end of the colon.
Sigmoidoscopy
Visual endoscopic examination of the sigmoid colon.
Sphincter
Circular ring of muscle that surrounds an opening or orifice.
Steatorrhea
Discharge of fat in the feces due to improper digestion and malabsorption of fat.
Stomatitis
Inflammation of the mouth.
Sublingual
Pertaining to under the tongue.
Submandibular
Pertaining to under the lower jaw (mandible).
Triglycerides
Chief form of fat (lipids) in body cells; composed of three molecules of fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol.
Uvula
Small, fleshy mass hanging from the soft palate at the back of the mouth.
Uvulectomy
Removal (excision) of the uvula.
Villi
Fingerlike, microscopic projections on the inner surface of the small intestine; sites of absorption of foods and fluids.
Achalasia
Failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) to relax; dilation of the esophagus and loss of peristalsis occurs.
Anal fistula
Abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus.
Anorexia
Lack of appetite.
Aphthous stomatitis
Inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers; canker sores.
Ascites
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.
Borborygmus
Rumbling or gurgling noise produced by hyperactive movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal tract.
Cholelithiasis
Abnormal condition of gallstones.
Cirrhosis
Chronic, degenerative disease of the liver.
Colonic polyposis
Benign growths protrude from the mucous membrane lining the colon.
Colorectal cancer
Adenocarcinoma of the colon or the rectum or both.
Constipation
Difficulty in passing (eliminating) feces (stool).
Crohn disease
Inflammatory bowel disease marked by diarrhea, pain, fever, weakness and weight loss.
Dental caries
Tooth decay.
Diarrhea
Frequent passage of loose, watery stools.
Diverticula
Small, pouch-like herniations through the muscular wall of a tubular organ such as the colon.
Diverticulitis
Inflammation of diverticula; abdominal pain and rectal bleeding are symptoms.
Diverticulosis
Abnormal condition of diverticula without inflammation.
Dysphagia
Difficulty in swallowing.
Eructation
Gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth.
Esophageal varices
Swollen, twisted veins at the lower end of the esophagus.
Etiology
Study of the cause of disease.
Flatus
Gas expelled through the anus.
Gastric carcinoma
Malignant tumor of the stomach; stomach cancer.
Gastroesophageal reflux
Backflow of solids and liquid against its normal direction of disease movement.
Hematochezia
Passage of bright red blood from the rectum.
Hemorrhoids
Swollen, twisted varicose veins in the rectal region.
Herpetic stomatitis
Inflammation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpes virus. Painful, fluid-filled blisters are produced by the infection and known as cold sores or fever blisters.
Hiatal hernia
Protrusion of the upper portion of the stomach upward through the diaphragm.
Icterus
Jaundice; yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood.
Idiopathic
Pertaining to unknown cause of disease.
Ileus
Failure of peristalsis with obstruction of the intestines.
Inflammatory bowel disease
Severe inflammation of the small and large intestine (colon); examples are Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis.
Inguinal hernia
A small loop of the bowel protrudes through a weakened lower abdominal muscle.
Intussusception
One portion of the intestine slips into an adjoining part; telescoping of the intestines.
Irritable bowel syndrome
Group of gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, and bloating) associated with stress and tension.
Jaundice
A symptom of illness marked by yellow-orange discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes resulting from excess bilirubin in the blood.
Melena
Black, tarry stools; feces containing blood.
Nausea
Unpleasant sensation in the stomach with a tendency to vomit.
Odynophagia
Painful swallowing.
Oral leukoplakia
White plaques or patches on the mucous membranes of the mouth.
Pancreatitis
Inflammation of the pancreas.
Periodontal disease
Inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone.
Peptic ulcer
Open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum.
Ulcerative colitis
Inflammation of the colon and rectum with the presence of ulcers; an inflammatory bowel disease.
Viral hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver caused by a virus.
Volvulus
Twisting of the intestine upon itself.