AP Biology Chapters 14 & 15
Terms in this set (61)
What made people start questioning the idea of creationism?
What is creationism?
-the belief that all living things were made at one time by God
-living things don't change overtime
-the world is not really that old
What would creationists say about fossils?
all animals that are shown in fossils have to still be alive somewhere today
What creates different species?
their physical appearance
How are different species formed?
through natural selection
What was Plato's theory?
there is and "ideal" or "perfect" form of every species
-people = David....Michaelangelo
What was Aristotle's theory?
there is a "ladder" of living things leading up to the most perfect form of living things that is continuous
-humans are #2
What was Smith's theory?
-deeper fossils are simple...they get more complex the fresher they are
-progression of forms
-things do change overtime
What was LeClerc's theory?
organisms change overtime
-didn't know how
What was Cuvier's belief?
What is catastrophism?
there are gaps in the rocks of fossils due to catastrophes on earth
What was Aggasiz's belief?
there needs to be many catastrophes to cause the gaps in rocks with fossils
What was Hutton and Lyen's belief?
What is uniformitariansm?
-the earth is really old
-weather and erosion is what shape the earth
-the same forces change the shape of the earth today
What were Lamarck's ideas?
1.) if an organism uses or disuses something more it will or will not develop....it could get smaller
2.) an organism needs certain traits to survive...so they form these when needed....dogs get thicker coats in the winter
3.) acquired characteristics...organisms can change because they use certain characteristics....traits are shown overtime if used...giraffes necks have gotten longer with use
What is Malthus's belief?
-eventually we will run out of resources
-the population can't increase forever
What book did Malthus write in 1859?
On the Origin of Species
What did Malthus's book say?
1.) the population may increase
2.) the population size is often constant due to competition....not everything can survive
3.) individuals differ....survival of the fittest....the ones that are best suited for their environment will survive
4.) there is some variation in genetics among organisms
What is evolution?
the change in allele frequency in a population
What is coevolution?
-multiple organisms change together
-changes in the environment alter more than one species
What did fossil records show?
-older rocks lack fossils of species that are around today
-deeper rocks have simpler fossils
-fresher rocks have more complex fossils
Why are there discontinuities in fossilization?
it is very rare and not always gradual
What did Hackle study and believe?
embryology....ontogeny recapitulates phylogony
What is embryology?
-development of animals repeats their evolutionary past
-if you watch how organisms are born you will see how the evolve
What are homologous structures?
-organs or characteristics that are derived developmentally from the same structure but may not have the same function
-brains of vertebrates all exhibit the same homologous structure
What are vestigial structures?
doesn't have a function now but may be needed in the future or they just disappear
What is divergent evolution?
homologous and vestigial structures
What is biogeography?
the study of the global distribution of organisms
What causes the same organisms to be found all over the world?
What is convergent evolution?
some animals have evolved to look alike but they do not come from the same ancestry
What are analagous structures?
the same structures with the same functions are found in different organisms from different ancestry
What is involved in biochemistry?
protein comparison in DNA
What is relative dating?
comparing the age of fossils to other layers of fossils
What is absolute dating?
how long it takes for something to break down....radioactive decay
What is radioactive decay?
-measures the amount of radioactive carbon in the body overtime
-always takes the same amount of time for half to decay
What equations did Hardy and Weinburg come up with?
-p + q = 1
-p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
What are the mechanisms of evolution?
What are mutations?
-the source of new alleles
-almost always harmful
What is migration?
-organisms move in and out of a population
-introduces new alleles into a population
-can spread genes throughout country
-could have a negative or a positive effect on the environment
-could create a new species
What is genetic drift?
-small populations can have random changes that quickly affect the gene frequency
-a few kids can completely change a population
-could also be causes by catastrophe...survivor's genes will continue on...bottleneck effect
What is the founder effect?
-isolated colonies are founded by a small number of organisms
-a small part of a larger population relocates and can represent a totally different gene frequency than the original population
-Amish....only involves 5 families
-able to pass around recessive gene more easily which will then make it appear more frequently than in the normal population
How often does non-random mating occur?
What are examples of non-random mating?
What is harem breeding?
the dominant males will mate with a majority of the population
What is assortive breeding?
similar people tend to mate with each other
-similar sociocultural background
What is sexual selection?
animals choose a mate based on a certain criteria
What is the selfish gene hypothesis?
males attempt to leave as many of their genes into the next generation as possible...whoever has the most kids wins
What are the different types of natural selection?
What is disruptive selection?
huge change in population and gene pool
What is directional selection?
the population moves in one direction....either increase or decrease
What is stabilizing selection?
what physical genes survive throughout generations....most desirable genes
What is predation?
how to survive predators
What is symbiosis?
working with other animals to help each other survive
What is altruism?
Helping one organism survive without any personal gain
What are some causes of extinction?
What is localized distribution?
an organism can only survive in one environment
What is overspecialization?
an organism only eats one thing to survive
-it will die without that organism
What is true in an equilibrium population?
-there must be no mutations
-there must be no gene flow....no movement of alleles in or out of a population
-the population must be very large
-all mating must be random
-there must be no natural selection
What is population bottleneck?
-a population is drastically reduced as a result of a natural catastrophe or overhunting
-can rapidly change gene frequency
What are abiotic factors?
-nonliving things....water, soil, sunlight, etc
What are biotic factors?
other living organisms