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162 terms

Medical Terminology - Chapter 8

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Adnexa uteri
Accessory parts of the uterus; fallopian tubes and ovaries.
Amenorrhea
Absence of menstrual flow.
Amniocentesis
Surgical puncture with a needle to withdraw fluid from within the amniotic sac.
Amnion
Innermost membranous sac surrounding the developing fetus.
Amniotic fluid
Fluid contained within the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus.
Anovulatory
Not accompanied by ovulation (release of eggs from the ovary).
Areola
Dark, pigmented area surrounding the breast nipple.
Bartholin glands
Two small mucus-secreting glands near the opening of the vagina to the outside of the body.
Bilateral oophorectomy
Excision or removal of both ovaries.
Cephalic version
Procedure for turning the fetus so that its head is the presenting part to enter the birth canal first.
Cervix
Necklike, lower portion of the uterus.
Choriogenesis
Formation of the chorion, the outermost membrane surrounding the fetus.
Chorion
Outermost membrane surrounding the developing fetus. It forms the fetal part of the placenta.
Chorionic
Pertaining to the chorion.
Clitoris
Sensitive erectile tissue, outside the body in front of the opening of the female urethra.
Coitus
Sexual intercourse.
Colposcopy
Visual examination of the vagina using an endoscope (colposcope).
Corpus luteum
Yellow glandular mass (corpus) formed by an ovarian follicle that has matured and discharged its ovum. It secretes progesterone to maintain pregnancy.
Cul-de-sac
Region in the lower abdomen between the uterus and the rectum.
Culdocentesis
Surgical (needle) puncture of the cul-de-sac to remove fluid for analysis and diagnosis of disease.
Dysmenorrhea
Painful, difficult menses (menstruation).
Dyspareunia
Painful sexual intercourse.
Dystocia
Difficult childbirth.
Embryo
Stage in prenatal development from two to six weeks.
Endocervicitis
Inflammation of the inner lining of the cervix (lower, necklike portion of the uterus).
Endometritis
Inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus (upper portion).
Endometrium
Inner, mucous membrane lining of the uterus.
Episiotomy
Incision of the vulva (perineum) to widen the opening of the vagina during a difficult childbirth.
Estrogen
Ovarian hormone that promotes female secondary sex characteristics and sexual development.
Fallopian tube
One of a pair of ducts through which the ovum travels to the uterus (oviducts or uterine tubes).
Fertilization
Union of the egg (ovum) and sperm cell.
Fetal presentation
Manner in which the fetus enters the birth canal.
Fetus
Stage in prenatal development from 6 to 39 or 40 weeks.
Fimbriae
Finger or fringe-like ends of the fallopian tubes.
Follicle-stimulating hormone
Secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate maturation of (FSH) the egg cell (ovum).
Galactorrhea
Excessive or abnormal secretion of milk after breast-feeding has ended.
Gamete
Reproductive cell (ovum or sperm cell).
Genitalia
Reproductive organs (genitals).
Gestation
Nine-month period during which a fertilized egg cell develops into an infant; pregnancy.
Gonad
Female or male reproductive organ that produces sex cells and hormones.
Gynecology
Study of the female reproductive organs, including the breasts.
Gynecomastia
Female-like breast enlargement in a male.
Human chorionic
Secreted by the placenta to sustain pregnancy.gonadotropin
Hymen
Mucous membrane partially or completely covering the opening to the vagina.
Hysterectomy
Removal of the uterus.
Hysteroscopy
Visual examination (endoscopic) of the uterus.
Intrauterine device (IUD)
Device inserted by a physician into the uterus to prevent pregnancy.
Involution
Shrinking of the uterus (womb) to its normal size after childbirth.
Labia
Lips of the vagina.
Lactation
Production of milk.
Lactiferous ducts
Tubes that carry milk throughout the breast.
Lactogenesis
Production of milk.
Leukorrhea
White to yellow discharge from the vagina.
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Secreted by the pituitary gland to promote ovulation.
Mammary
Pertaining to the breast.
Mammary papilla
Nipple of the breast.
Mammoplasty
Surgical repair of the breast (augmentation or reduction surgery).
Mastectomy
Removal (excision) of a breast.
Mastitis
Inflammation of a breast.
Menarche
Beginning of the first menstrual period (menses).
Menometrorrhagia
Excessive uterine bleeding during menstruation and also between menstrual periods.
Menopause
Gradual ending of menstruation.
Menorrhea
Menstruation; monthly discharge of blood from the lining of the uterus.
Menorrhagia
Abnormally heavy or long menstrual periods.
Menstruation
Monthly shedding of the lining of the uterus; menses.
Metrorrhagia
Bleeding between menstruations.
Multigravida
A woman who has been pregnant more than once.
Multipara
A woman who has delivered more than one viable infant.
Myomectomy
Removal of muscle tumors (fibroids) from the uterus.
Myometrium
Muscle layer of the uterus.
Neonatal
Newborn.
Neonatology
Study of newborns.
Nullipara
A woman who has never given birth to an infant.
Obstetrics
Branch of medicine dealing with the care of women during pregnancy and childbirth.
Oligomenorrhea
Scanty menstrual flow.
Oogenesis
Formation of ova (egg cells).
Oophoritis
Inflammation of an ovary.
Orifice
An opening.
Ovarian
Pertaining to an ovary.
Ovarian follicle
Tiny sac in the ovary that contains an egg cell (ovum).
Ovary
One of two female reproductive organs (gonads) that produce egg cells and female hormones (estrogen and progesterone).
Ovulation
Release of an egg cell from an ovary.
Ovum
Egg cell; plural is ova.
Oxytocia
Rapid labor and childbirth.
Oxytocin
Secretion of the pituitary gland causing contraction of the uterus during labor and stimulation of milk secretion from the breast.
Parturition
Act of giving birth.
Perineorrhaphy
Suture of the perineum (following an episiotomy).
Perineum
Area between the anus and vagina in females and the area between the anus and scrotal sac in males.
Pituitary gland
Endocrine gland at the base of the brain.
Placenta
Vascular organ that develops in the uterine wall during pregnancy.
Prenatal
Pertaining to before birth.
Pregnancy
Condition of having a developing embryo and fetus in the body for about 40 weeks; gestation.
Primigravida
A woman during her first pregnancy.
Primipara
A woman who has given birth to her first child.
Primiparous
Pertaining to a woman who has given birth to her first child.
Progesterone
Hormone secreted by the ovaries; maintains the lining of the uterus during pregnancy.
Pseudocyesis
False pregnancy.
Puberty
Period during which secondary sex characteristics begin to develop and the ability to reproduce begins.
Pyosalpinx
Pus in a fallopian tube.
Retroversion
Tipping backward of an organ or a part of the body; as in the uterus.
Salpingectomy
Removal of a fallopian tube.
Salpingitis
Inflammation of a fallopian tube.
Uterine serosa
Outermost layer surrounding the uterus.
Uterus
Hollow, pear-shaped muscular female organ in which the embryo and fetus develop; womb.
Vagina
Muscular, mucosal tube extending from the uterus (cervix) to the exterior of the body.
Vaginal orifice
Opening of the vagina to the exterior of the body.
Vaginitis
Inflammation of the vagina.
Vulva
External female genitalia; labia, clitoris and vaginal orifice.
Vulvovaginitis
Inflammation of the vulva and vagina.
Zygote
Stage in prenatal development from fertilization and implantation to two weeks.
Abortion
Premature ending of pregnancy before the embryo or fetus is able to exist on its own.
Abruptio placentae
Premature detachment of the placenta from its place in the uterine wall.
Apgar score
System of scoring an infant's physical condition at 1 and 5 minutes after birth.
Aspiration
Withdrawal of fluid from a cavity or sac with an instrument using suction.
Carcinoma in situ
Cancerous tumor that is localized and has not spread either to nearby tissue or through the lymphatic system or bloodstream.
Carcinoma of the breast
Malignant tumor of breast tissue; breast cancer.
Carcinoma of the cervix
Malignant cells within the cervix (lower portion of the uterus).
Carcinoma of the endometrium
Malignant tumor of the uterus (endometrium).
Cauterization
Destruction of tissue by burning.
Cervical dysplasia
Abnormal cells in the cervix (lower, neck-like region of the uterus).
Cervicitis
Inflammation of the cervix.
Cesarean section
Surgical incision of the abdominal wall and uterus to deliver a fetus.
Chlamydia
Type of bacteria that causes pelvic inflammatory disease and infection in the reproductive tract of women and men.
Choriocarcinoma
Malignant tumor of the placenta.
Chorionic villus sampling
Sampling of placental tissues (chorionic villi) for prenatal diagnosis.
Colposcopy
Visual examination of the vagina and uterine cervix using an optical magnifying instrument called a colposcope.
Conization
Removal of a cone-shaped section of the cervix.
Cryocauterization
Use of freezing cold temperature to burn and destroy tissue.
Culdocentesis
Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the cul-de-sac.
Cystadenocarcinoma
Malignant tumor containing fluid-filled sacs and glandular tissue; commonly occurring in the ovaries.
Cystadenoma
Benign tumor of cystic and glandular components, commonly found in the ovaries.
Dermoid cyst
Ovarian cysts lined with a variety of cell types (hair, skin, teeth).
Dilatation
Widening and enlargement of a hollow organ.
Dilation and curettage
Widening (dilation) of the cervix and scraping the endometrial lining of the uterus.
Ectopic pregnancy
Implantation of the fertilized egg in any site other than in the uterus.
Endometriosis
Endometrial tissue located outside of the uterus.
Erythroblastosis fetalis
Hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by a blood group incompatibility (Rh factor between the mother and fetus.
Exenteration
Removal of internal organs. Pelvic exenteration is removal of ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, vagina and sections of the intestines.
Fetal monitoring
Continuous recording of fetal heart rate and uterine contractions during labor.
Fibrocystic disease
Presence of small sacs of fibrous connective tissue and fluid in the breast.
Fibroids
Benign tumors of fibrous and muscular tissue in the uterus; leiomyomas.
Hyaline membrane disease
Acute lung disease in premature infants; respiratory distress disease syndrome of the newborn.
Hydrocephalus
Accumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brain; in infants, the condition causes enlargement of the head.
Hysterosalpingography
X-ray recording of the uterus and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast material.
In vitro fertilization
Egg and sperm cells are combined outside the body in a laboratory dish (in vitro) to facilitate fertilization. Fertilized ova are then implanted into the uterus through the cervix.
Laparoscopy
Visual examination of the abdominal cavity using an endoscope.
Leiomyomas
Benign tumors of the uterus; fibroids.
Lumen
Cavity or channel with a tube or tubular organ, as a blood vessel, vagina, or fallopian tube.
Mammography
X-ray recording of the breast.
Meconium aspiration
Abnormal inhalation of meconium (first stools) by a fetus syndrome or newborn.
Ovarian carcinoma
Malignant tumor of the ovary; ovarian adenocarcinoma.
Ovarian cyst
Sacs of fluid within or on the ovaries.
Palpation
Process of examining by using hands or fingers on the outside of the body.
Pap smear
Microscopic examination of stained cells removed from the vagina and cervix.
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Inflammation and infection of organs in the pelvic region; including salpingitis, oophoritis, endometritis, and endocervicitis.
Pelvic ultrasonography
Recording images of sound waves as they bounce off the organs in the pelvic region.
Pelvimetry
Measurement of the dimensions of the female pelvis.
Placenta previa
Placental implantation over the cervical opening or in the lower region of the uterine wall.
Preeclampsia
Abnormal condition of pregnancy marked by high blood pressure, proteinuria, and edema.
Pyloric stenosis
Narrowing of the opening of the stomach to the duodenum in a newborn.
Respiratory distress
Abnormal condition in infants when a protein (surfactant) syndrome is missing in the lung tissues. Infants have difficult respiratory function; hyaline membrane disease.
Tubal ligation
Tying off of the fallopian tubes to make a woman incapable of reproduction; sterilization of a female.