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Semester Exam (2018)
Terms in this set (51)
what indicates a new substance has been formed?
bubbling and fizzing
A physical change occurs in digestion when-
teeth break down and grind food particles into smaller pieces
What is most likely to be observed first in a garden area?
weeds sprouting in the soil
what does an ecosystem need to have in order to have the greatest sustainability?
The habitat with the greatest sustainability will be the one that-
has the greatest overall biodiversity
Green plants capture and store energy from the Sun through the process of-
Plants use photosynthesis to meet their survival needs by enabling them to-
convert radiant energy into chemical energy
Photosynthesis produces the chemical energy that a plant's cell need. What form does this energy take?
What gas do plants release as a result of photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert-
radiant energy into chemical energy
What is the role of a consumer in the flow of energy through a food chain?
gaining energy by eating other living things
Which group of organisms provides the primary source of energy for all other organism?
In a food web, primary consumers get their energy by-
eating organisms known as producers
When a seedling emerges upright from the soil, which force is it overcoming?
The pull of gravity has the greatest effect on which of the following in plants?
the downward growth of roots
Geotropism explains which of the following phenomena?
A seed is planted upside-down, but the roots still grow in the direction of gravity
Turgor pressure can help plants move. Internal water pressure can cause-
a wilted stem to return to an upright position
Turgor pressure helps a seed by-
Pushing its way out of the seed coat
What is a positive effect of a forest fire?
clears the underbrush to allow new plants to grow
Tornadoes can be more damaging than a hurricane to trees in a habitat because tornado produce-
High rains cause the flow in a river to increase. The increase in the river's flow will most likely have which of the following effects on the environment?
The banks of the river will experience increased erosion.
When fertilizers enter surface water, they cause problems in the watershed by -
causing rapid algal growth that decrease oxygen levels and choke aquatic life.
Runoff from agricultural land (farmland) carries chemicals from fertilizers that collect in a lake. The buildup of chemicals can eventually cause -
aquatic life, such as fish and turtles, to die from a lack of oxygen.
The greater a habitat's biodiversity, the greater will be that habitat's-
sustainability over time with varying conditions.
Over time, a shallow pond fills with plants, such as duckweed and cattails. These plants -
support ecological succession from pond to marshland. (Pond to forest)
A habitat that receives little or no precipitation will most likely be suitable for organisms that -
store large quantities of water internally.
Ecological succession usually includes changes in all of the following EXCEPT -
the rate at which species produce offspring.
A barrel cactus is a plant adapted to survive in the harsh conditions of a desert. Individual barrel cacti might vary in several traits. Which of the following variations would have the greatest effect on the ability of individual barrel cacti to survive in an arid climate?
Thickness of waxy coating
Over time, a certain species of hummingbird has developed traits including a small body, brightly colored feathers, a long, narrow beak, and the ability to drop its body temperature while it sleeps. Which of these characteristics is most likely a trait that developed in response to available food sources?
Long, narrow beak
Galapagos finches are birds that live on islands off the coast of South America. The finches on the various islands are very different from each other. As a result of the different food resources on the islands, which of the following structures of the Galapagos finches experienced the greatest change through natural selection?
Leopard seals are animals adapted to survive in the freezing conditions of Antarctica. Individual leopard seals vary in their different traits. Which of the following variations would give a leopard seal the greatest chance of surviving in its harsh environment?
Thicker layer of blubber
Peppered moths often hide on white-colored birch trees because they are similarly colored. Which of the following environmental changes would lead to the enhanced survival of darker moths?
Birch trees become covered in black ash from nearby factories.
Both primary and secondary succession begin with pioneer species that —
modify the area and allow larger and more complex organisms to appear
Wheat was one of the first plant crops that humans domesticated. In the process of domestication, the wild form of wheat was eventually changed into a form more suited to human agricultural practice.
Early farmers most likely used seeds only from wheat plants with —
larger grains that could produce more food per plant
Some dairy farmers want to increase the amount of milk produced by their cows. How can the farmers use selective breeding to increase milk production?
By choosing cows that are high milk producers
What role do decomposers have in contributing to the survival of other organisms in their environments? Decomposers —
release nutrients that plants use into the soil.
A flame burns wood and turns it black, creating a new substance. What is the sign of a chemical change?
The color change of the wood.
How does pollution on the water enter the water table?
When it rains the water seeps (inflitrates) the soil, carrying the pollution with it. Eventually the polluted water reaches the water table.
Trees in the rain forest create a canopy. This canopy shields all plants below the trees from the sun. If all of the trees were cut down, leaving all smaller plants behind, what adaptation would be most beneficial to the plants?
The ability to resist direct sunlight.
Explain competition for resources during succession.
Weeds will do better than other plants early on because they require fewer nutrients to grow.
How can non-native species affect the organisms in that environment.
Non-native or invasive species will compete with native species for food, water, and other resources. This would cause stress on native species and can affect their suitability.
What effect will dark colored trees have on the peppered and dark moth populations?
The dark moth populations will survive and increase due to better camouflage. The white peppered moth population will decrease due to ineffective camouflage.
The erosion of sand dunes leads to a situation where sea water begins to move into a forest area formerly protected by the dunes. Which of the following traits in forest plants will most likely increase in the population over time?
The ability to tolerate salt.
What allows plants to stand upright (move)?
Turgor pressure (water pushing outward on the cell wall)
If a hurricane were to hit a marsh land what might occur?
The storm surge can bring salt water into the marshland and kill off the plant life.
What does the path of a tornado look like?
A line of devastation from where the tornado set down to where it ended.
A local factory is dumping pollution into a pond. What will this affect?
The local pond life (plants and animals)
What is the function of Xylem in plants?
Transports water from the roots to the leaves.
The environment of an aquatic organism is experiences less oxygen in the water over time. What adaption would be most beneficial?
Increased gill surface area to allow the organism to better absorb oxygen from the water.
A farmer wants to increase the amount of food produced by corn crops. If the farmer selectively breeds the plants, for which trait should the farmer select?
More cobs on the corn plants.
What organisms are responsible for decomposition?
Snails, worms, bacteria
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