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Chapter 8 Vocabulary

active transport

energy-expending process by which cells transport materials across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient


active transport process where a cell engulfs materials with a portion of the cell's plasma membrane and releases the contents inside of the cell


active transport process by which materials are secreted or expelled from a cell

facilitated diffusion

passive transport of materials across a plasma membrane by transport proteins embedded in the plasma membrane

hypertonic solution

in cells, solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances outside the cell is higher than the concentration inside the cell; causes a cell to shrink as water leaves the cell

hypotonic solution

in cells, solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances is lower in the solution outside the cell than the concentration inside the cell; causes a cell to swell and possibly burst as water enters the cell

isotonic solution

in cells, solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances in the solution is the same as the concentration of dissolved substances inside a cell


diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane depending on the concentration of solutes on either side of the membrane

passive transport

movement of particles across cell membranes by diffusion or osmosis; the cell uses no energy to move particles across the membrane


third phase of mitosis in which the centromeres split and the chromatid pairs of each chromosome are pulled apart by microtubules

cell cycle

continuous sequence of growth (interphase) and division (mitosis) in a cell


in animal cells, a pair of small cylindrical structures composed of microtubules that duplicate during interphase and move to opposite ends of the cell during prophase


cell structure that joins two sister chromatids of a chromosome


long strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus; condense to form chromosomes


cell structures that carry the genetic material that is copied and passed from generation to generation of cells


cell process following meiosis or mitosis in which the cell's cytoplasm divides and separates into new cells


cell growth phase where a cell increases in size, carries on metabolism, and duplicates chromosomes prior to division


short second phase of mitosis where doubled chromosomes move to the equator of the spindle and chromatids are attached by centromeres to a separate spindle fiber


period of nuclear cell division in which two daughter cells are formed, each containing a complete set of chromosomes


group of two or more tissues organized to perform complex activities within an organism

organ system

multiple organs that work together to perform a specific life function


first and longest phase of mitosis where chromatin coils into visible chromosomes

sister chromatid

identical halves of a duplicated parent chromosome formed during the prophase stage of mitosis; the halves are held together by a centromere


cell structures composed of microtubule fibers; forms between the centrioles during prophase and shorten during anaphase, pulling apart sister chromatids


final phase of mitosis during which new cells prepare for their own independent existence


groups of cells that work together to perform a specific function


uncontrolled cell division that may be caused by environmental factors and/or changes in enzyme production in the cell cycle


segment of DNA that controls the protein production and the cell cycle

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