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148 terms

Medical Terminology - Chapter 11

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Angiogram
X-ray record of a blood vessel.
Angioplasty
Surgical repair of a blood vessel.
Anoxia
Lack of oxygen in body tissues.
Aorta
Largest artery in the body.
Aortic stenosis
Narrowing of the aorta.
Arrhythmia
Without rhythm; an irregular beat of the heart.
Arterial anastomosis
Surgical connection between two arteries.
Arteriography
X-ray recording of arteries; contrast is injected.
Arteriole
Small artery.
Arteriosclerosis
Hardening of an artery with collection of fatty plaque.
Artery
Largest type of blood vessel.
Atherectomy
Removal of plaque (lipids and clots) that accumulate in the lining of an artery.
Atheroma
Mass of fatty plaque that collects in an artery.
Atherosclerosis
Form of arteriosclerosis in which fatty plaque deposits in the interior lining of an artery.
Atrial
Pertaining to an atrium (upper chamber of the heart).
Atrioventricular bundle
Specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting impulses between them; bundle of His.
Atrioventricular node
Specialized tissue in the wall between the atria. Electrical impulses pass from the sino-atrial node (pacemaker) through the atrioventricular node and atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) toward the ventricles.
Atrium (pl. atria)
Upper chamber of the heart.
Brachial artery
Artery that carries blood to the arm.
Bradycardia
Slow heartbeat.
Bundle of His
Atrioventricular bundle.
Capillary
Smallest blood vessel.
Carbon dioxide
Gas released by body cells and carried by veins to the heart, and then to the lungs for exhalation; CO2.
Cardiomegaly
Enlargement of the heart.
Cardiomyopathy
Disease of heart muscle.
Coronary arteries
Branches of the aorta bringing oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.
Cyanosis
Abnormal condition of blueness of the skin; caused by decreased oxygen and increased carbon dioxide in the blood.
Deoxygenated blood
Blood that is oxygen-poor.
Diastole
Relaxation phase of the heartbeat.
Electrocardiogram
Record of the electricity flowing through the heart.
Endocardium
Inner lining of the heart.
Endothelium
Innermost lining of blood vessels.
Hypercholesterolemia
High levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Hypoxia
Hypoxia is deficiency of oxygen in body tissues.
Interventricular septum
Wall between the ventricles of the heart.
Mitral valve
Valve between the left atrium and left ventricle; bicuspid valve.
Mitral valvulitis
Inflammation of the mitral valve.
Myocardium
Muscular layer of the heart.
Myxoma
Rare neoplasm of connective tissue found in the heart muscle.
Normal sinus rhythm
Heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node.
Oxygen
A gas that enters the body through the lungs and travels to the heart to be distributed by arterial blood to all parts of the body.
Pacemaker
Specialized nervous tissue in the wall of the right atrium; it begins the heartbeat; sinoatrial node.
Pericardiocentesis
Surgical puncture to remove fluid within the pericardial space surrounding the heart.
Pericardium
Double-layered membrane surrounding the heart.
Phlebotomy
Incision into a vein.
Pulmonary artery
Blood vessel carrying oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs.
Pulmonary circulation
Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart.
Pulmonary valve
A valve located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
Pulmonary vein
One of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Pulse
Beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries.
Septum (pl. septa)
Wall or partition. The interatrial septum lies between the atria of the heart and the interventricular septum is between the ventricles of the heart.
Sinoatrial node
Sensitive nervous tissue in the wall of the right atrium; pacemaker of the heart.
Sphygmomanometer
Instrument to measure blood pressure.
Stethoscope
Instrument for listening to sounds in the chest.
Systemic circulation
Flow of blood from body tissues to the heart and from the heart back to the tissues.
Systole
Contraction phase of the heartbeat.
Tachycardia
Rapid heartbeat.
Thrombolysis
Destruction of a clot.
Thrombophlebitis
Inflammation of a vein and formation of a clot within the vein.
Tricuspid valve
A valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle.
Valve
Structure in a vein or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in the proper direction.
Valvotomy
Incision of a valve.
Valvuloplasty
Surgical repair of a valve.
Vascular
Pertaining to a blood vessel.
Vasoconstriction
Narrowing of a blood vessel.
Vasodilation
Widening of a blood vessel; vasodilatation.
Vein
Thin-walled blood vessel that carries oxygen-poor (deoxygenated) blood from body tissues back to the heart.
Vena cava (pl. venae cavae)
Largest vein in the body. The venae cavae (inferior and superior) return blood to the heart from the body tissues.
Venipuncture
Incision of a vein to remove blood.
Venous
Pertaining to a vein.
Ventricle
One of two lower chambers of the heart.
Venule
Small vein.
ACE inhibitor
Drug that causes dilation of blood vessels and lowers blood pressure, prevents heart attacks, strokes, and congestive heart failure. ACE stands for angiotensin-converting enzyme, which normally constricts blood vessels.
Acute coronary syndromes
Consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries; unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack).
Aneurysm
Local widening or ballooning out of a small area of an artery.
Angina
Chest pain associated with myocardial ischemia.
Angiography
X-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material.
Atrioventricular block
Failure of conduction of impulses from the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle and ventricles of the heart.
Atrial fibrillation
Electrical impulses move randomly throughout the atria, causing the atria to quiver instead of contracting with a normal rhythm.
Auscultation
Use of a stethoscope to listen for sounds emanating from the heart or other organs.
Beta-blocker
Drug used to treat high blood pressure and control heart rate.
Bruit
An abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard on auscultation of an artery or an organ.
Calcium channel blocker
Drug used to treat chest pain (angina) and high blood pressure (hypertension).
Cardiac arrest
Sudden, unexpected stoppage of the heart; sudden cardiac death.
Cardiac catheterization
Thin, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or an artery and after contrast material is introduced, blood pressure is measured, and x-rays taken to image patterns of blood flow.
Cardiac MRI
Images of the heart are produced with magnetic waves.
Cardiac tamponade
Pressure on the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space.
Cardioversion
Treatment for serious arrhythmias using brief discharges of electricity to shock the heart so that a normal rhythm can begin; defibrillation.
Claudication
Pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking has begun, but absence of pain at rest.
Coarctation of the aorta
Congenital anomaly in which a portion of the aorta near the heart is narrowed or stenosed.
Computerized tomography angiography
X-ray images are combined with computerized tomography to produce a three-dimensional picture of the heart and blood vessels.
Congenital heart disease
Structural heart defects that appear at birth.
Congestive heart failure
Heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood.
Coronary artery disease
Arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle become clogged and blocked with deposits of fatty material and cholesterol (plaque).
Coronary artery bypass grafting
Arteries or veins are grafted onto coronary arteries to bypass blocked arteries and bring need blood supply to the myocardium.
Deep-vein thrombosis
Blood clots form in a large vein, usually in the leg.
Digoxin
Drug that increases the strength and regularity of the heartbeat.
Digital subtraction angiography
Video equipment, computer and x-ray machine produce images of blood vessels before and after injecting contrast material.
Doppler ultrasound
Method of focusing sound waves on blood vessels to measure blood flow.
Echocardiography
High-energy sound waves are transmitted into the chest and images recorded of valves, chambers, surfaces and movement of the heart.
Electrocardiography
Process of recording the electricity flowing through the heart.
Electron beam computed tomography
Electron beams and CT identify calcium deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose early coronary artery disease.
Embolus (pl. emboli)
A clot or other substance that travels to a distant location and suddenly blocks a blood vessel.
Endarterectomy
Surgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery.
Endocarditis
Inflammation of the endocardium (inner lining of the heart).
Extracorporeal circulation
Use of a heart-lung machine to divert blood from the heart and lungs during open heart surgery.
Fibrillation
Random, rapid, inefficient, irregular contractions of the atria or ventricles.
Flutter
Rapid, but regular contractions of the heart, usually of the atria.
Heart transplantation
Donor heart is transferred to a recipient.
Hemorrhoids
Swollen, twisted veins in the rectal and anal region.
Holter monitoring
Compact version of an electrocardiograph is worn during a 24-hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias.
Hypertension
High blood pressure.
Implantable cardioverter defibrillator
Small electric device implanted inside the chest (near the collarbone) to sense arrhythmias and terminate them to restore normal sinus rhythm.
Infarction
Area of dead tissue.
Ischemia
Holding back blood to an region of the body. Myocardial ischemia is deprivation of blood to the heart muscle.
Left ventricular assist device
Booster pump implanted in the abdomen with a tube inserted into the left ventricle. An LVAD is a "bridge to transplant" or destination therapy when heart transplantation is impossible.
Lipid tests
Measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides (fats) in a sample of blood.
Lipoprotein electrophoresis
Lipoproteins (combinations of fat and protein) are physically separated in a blood sample. Examples of lipoproteins are HDL (high density lipoprotein) and LDL (low density lipoprotein).
Mitral stenosis
Narrowing of the mitral valve.
Mitral valve prolapse
Abnormal closure of the mitral valve so that blood refluxes backward into the left atrium during ventricular contraction.
Murmur
Extra sound heard between normal beats during auscultation of the heart.
Myocardial infarction
Area of dead (necrotic) tissue in the heart muscle; heart attack.
Nitroglycerin
Drug used in the treatment of angina (pectoris). It dilates coronary arteries so that more blood flows to heart muscle.
Occlusion
Blockage or closure of a vessel or tube.
Palpitations
Uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, such as skipped beats.
Patent ductus arteriosus
The ductus arteriosus, a small duct that is open during fetal circulation, fails to close at birth.
Percutaneous coronary
A catheter with a balloon and stent is inserted into a intervention coronary artery to remove collections of plaque. Drug-eluting stents release chemicals to keep debris and plaque from recollecting.
Pericardial friction rub
Scraping or grating sound heard on auscultation of the heart. It is usually symptomatic of pericarditis.
Pericarditis
Inflammation of the pericardium (double-layered outermost membrane of the heart).
Peripheral vascular disease
Blockage of blood vessels outside the heart. Carotid artery occlusion is an example.
Petechiae
Small pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin.
Positron emission tomography
Images show blood flow and myocardial function following uptake of radioactive substances.
Radiofrequency catheter ablation
To treat certain cardiac arrhythmias, radiofrequency energy is delivered from the tip of a catheter inserted through a blood vessel into the heart. The treatment destroys or ablates the tissue causing the arrhythmia.
Raynaud disease
Recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis in fingers and toes caused by blood vessel spasms.
Rheumatic heart disease
Heart disease caused by rheumatic fever.
Septal defects
Small holes, present at birth, in the walls between the heart chambers.
Serum enzyme tests
Chemicals measured in the blood as evidence of a heart attack. Examples are creatine kinase (CK), troponin-I (cTnI), and troponin T (cTnT).
Statins
Drugs given to lower cholesterol in the bloodstream.
Stress test
Exercise tolerance test (ETT) is used to determine the heart's response to physical exertion.
Telemetry
Continuous monitoring of a patient's heart rhythm in a hospital.
Tetralogy of Fallot
Four separate defects of the heart occurring at birth.
Technetium 99m sestamibi
Uptake of a radioactive chemical (technetium 99m scan sestamibi) in myocardium reveals evidence of a heart attack (myocardial infarction).
Thallium 201 scan
Concentration of a radioactive substance (thallium 201) is measured in the myocardium to show evidence of an infarction ("cold spots").
Thrill
Fine vibration felt on palpation (touching) the body over a blood vessel that is blocked.
Thrombolytic therapy
Injection of drugs (streptokinase and tPA) to dissolve clots in the bloodstream.
Thrombotic occlusion
Blockage of a blood vessel caused by thrombosis or clot formation.
Varicose veins
Swollen, twisted veins, often occurring in the legs.
Vegetations
Collections of clotted material that accumulate on endocardium and valves of the heart in conditions such as endocarditis and rheumatic heart disease.