132 terms

oceanography jamerlan midterm

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Terms in this set (...)

algae
producer
flounder
consumer
kelp
producer
sand star/starfish
consumer
heterotrophic bacteria
decomposer
diatom
autotroph
kelp
autotroph
dolphin
carnivore
an organism that feeds on plants or animals
omnivore
t/f The products of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).
false
T/F: nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations have no impact on primary productivity rates in marine ecosystems
false
t/f Compensation depth is the depth in the ocean where the photosynthetic rate exceeds the rate of cellular respiration.
false
t/f An overabundance of oxygen results in eutrophication.
true
T/F: Tropical open ocean waters have the highest rate of primary productivity in the world's oceans
false
t/f: most marine algae are limited to depths shallower than 100 meters; however, some red algae have been observed growing at depths of over 250 meters
true
t/f: the group of marine macroscopic algae with the highest abundance and greatest geographic distribution belong to the Division Rhodophyta.
true
t/f: If the total caloric content of the autotrophic organisms in a marine ecosystem were 250,000 kilocalories (kcal), then the expected caloric value for the trophic-level consumers at the second level would be 2,500 kcal.
true
t/f: consumers, producers, and decomposers are all examples of trophic levels within a food chain or food web
true
t/f: primary productivity in temperate marine systems is limited by the amount of available solar radiation throughout the entire year
false
t/f: equatorial upwelling decreases primary productivity in tropical waters
false
t/f: bacteria that manufactures carbs from CO2 in the absence of solar energy are still called autotrophs
true
where in the tropics would one find the lowest rate of primary production?
open waters at mid-latitudes
large algae or seaweeds are not considered true plants because...
they lack xylem and phloem
Although primary productivity in tropical areas is generally low, which of the following tropical locations have unusually high primary productivity rates?
coastal upwelling zones
a secchi disk is used to measure water _________
transparency
in primary production:
there is no biological accumulation of organic carbon
the process by which energy is derived from solar radiation that is used by certain organisms to form organic matter is called:
photosynthesis
Diatoms, important producers in the epipelagic open ocean, are members of the Division:
chrysophyta
many of the organisms responsible for the toxic red tides and paralytic shellfish poisoning belong to the Phylum/Division:
pyrrophyta
__________________ are the grass of the open ocean
diatoms
Important forms of nitrogen
nitrite, nitrate, urea, and ammonium
coastal waters typically have yellow green color because of the following except:
blue light penetrates the greatest depth
Photosynthesis equation
6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
chemosynthesis equation
CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
productivity in polar oceans is...
light-limited
productivity in tropical oceans is generally...
nutrient-limited
the efficiency of trophic transfers in ecosystems is on average around...
10%
besides being the source of food for commercial fisheries, primary productivity is important as...
global machinery for producing oxygen
the mass of a population of fish present at a given time is called its...
standing stock
the maximum sustainable yeild is best defined as...
largest catch that can be taken without overfishing
catches above the maximum sustainable yield...
result in overfishing
the term bycatch or incidental catch refers to...
non-target species that are caught along with commercial species
challenges to managing fisheries...
overfishing, bycatch, multinational boundaries, regulations on number of fishing vessels
anthophyta
phylum that includes seed plants that form flowers
chlorophyta
green algae
chrysophyta
Golden brown algae
phaeophyta
brown algae
pyrrophyta
fire algae
process of forming a dead zone
1. nutrient runoff
2. phytoplankton would grow excessively
3. plankton will die
4. bacteria breaks them down
5. creates oxygen
6. other organisms leave/die out because of low oxygen
bacterioplankton
Bacteria that live as plankton
floats for a portion of its life
meroplankton
lives on top of benthic sediments
epifauna
lives in benthic sediments
infauna
swims for its entire life
nekton
t/f: The NERITIC province is associated with the Continental Shelf
true
t/f: The oxygen minimum layer is found in the bathypelagic zone
false
t/f: the science of classifying and naming organisms is called taxonomy
true
t/f: plankton includes all organisms such as bacteria, algae, and animals that actively swim independently of ocean currents
false
t/f: meroplankton are organisms that spend the larval phase of their life cycle associated with the ocean bottom and the adult phase of the life cycle as plankton
false
t/f: phytoplankton are small in size as a result of predation pressure
false
t/f: Streamlining in fishes and other nektonic organisms means that the minimum amount of energy is expended to swim through the water
true
T/F: A euryhaline organism would be poorly adapted to living in coastal environments.
false
t/f: species diversity and total biomass are greater in warm-water marine environments in comparison to cold-water marine environments
false
t/f: one reason that polar climates support higher biomass is that colder water can hold more dissolved oxygen than warmer water
true
nekton may be restricted to particular ocean areas by...
availability of food, differences in water pressures with depth, changes in salinity, temperature variations with latitude and depth
most marine species are found in the...
benthic environment
Planktonic organisms often have needle-like structures that...
prevent sinking
When compared to their warmer water counterparts, cold-water plankton often...
are larger in size
High latitude ocean water tends to support large planktonic communities because...
of higher dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations
A common body shape that streamlines an organism in the marine environment is a flattened body that...
tapers at the front end
an organism that tolerates a wide range of salinities is referred to as..
hypertonic
osmotic pressures increases as the...
difference in salinity increases
the majority of marine invertebrates are...
isotonic with respect to their environment
compared to freshwater fishes, marine fishes...
tend to lose water by osmosis since their internal salt concentration is lower than that of seawater.
the color pattern in which marine organisms are light on the bottom and dark on the top of their bodies camoflauging them against the water-air interface is...
countershading
the euphotic zone is confined to the...
epipelagic zone
organisms with small bodies, extremely large mouths, and sharp teeth are likely to be found in the...
bathypelagic zone
the sublittoral zone is the area...
below the intertidal zone on the continental shelf
streams/rivers that flow year-round
perennial
inner bank of the stream/river
erosional zone
herbivores
primary consumers
currents in streams/rivers that move in directions other than downstream
eddies
streams that exist only fro a short period of time; exists as dry beds most of the time
ephemeral
small, shallow, circular lakes with poorly understood origins of formation
playa
lakes formed by meanders of rivers
oxbow
streams/rivers that dry up for a week or longer every year
intermittent
organisms that produce their own food
primary producers
outer bank of the stream/river
depositional zone
the part of the lake or pond where light is available but does not reach the bottom is called...
limnetic
if one would seek out neuston organisms, one would look where?
at the surface of the pond
types of wetlands:
swamps, fens, marshes, bogs
___________ often trigger algal blooms
high nutrient levels
in a water molecule, the side with the oxygen has _________ charge
a negative
most of the water within continent is found in...
glaciers and ice sheets
the bayou behind my house has water during the year except for the very hot months of June and July. Based on annual flow pattern, what kind of stream is it?
intermittent
what freshwater lake in Texas is not man made?
Caddo
in temperate latitudes, what causes the spring turnover or overturn?
surface water warming to 4 degrees C
t/f: it benefits a lake environment in the long term, to add more fertilizers so that photosynthesis can be maximized
false
t/f: bogs preserve the land parts of the tissue of buried animals because bacteria activity is slowed down by the low pH
false
in a stratified lake, the term metalimnion refers to the...
thermocline
herbivores...
are primary consumers
if you were to look for periphyton animals, where would you start?
on stems and roots underwater
earth is about...
4.6 billion years old
the hypothesis that best explains how the universe was formed is called the...
big bang theory
the earliest known fossils were discovered in northwestern Australia and resemble modern-day...
bacteria
characteristics of the sea...
smaller and shallower, somewhat enclosed by land, composed of salt-water, directly connected to the world ocean
average depth of the world's oceans...
3,682 meters
The first humans from Western Hemisphere known to have developed the art of navigation were the...
Phoenicians
the first person we are aware of who determined the circumference of the Earth using trigonometry and the angle of sunlight in Egypt was...
Pytheas
most of the explorations by northern and western Europeans during the Middle Ages were undertaken by...
Vikings of Scandinavia
a tentative, testable statement about the general nature of a phenomenon is called a...
hypothesis
the sun and the rest of the solar system formed about 5 million years ago from a huge clout of dust and gas called a...
nebula
the separation of the Earth into layers while it was molten was the result of the...
differing densities of the elements that make up the Earth
oceanic crust is primarily...
basalt
Current scientific knowledge indicates that the most likely origin of most of Earth's oceans was due to...
water vapor released from volcanic outgassing
t/f: early Polynesians only traveled within sight of land
false
t/f: vikings led by Thor Heyerdahl established temporary colonies in North America
false
t/f: layers of the earth separated based on density differences
true
t/f: oceanic crust is less dense than continental crust because it it made of silica and manganese
false
t/f: In general, the salinity content of ocean water has remained constant throughout the majority of Earth's history
true
t/f: free oxygen was present in the Earth's primordial atmosphere
false
t/f: radiometric dating is used to determine the age of rocks
true
first European explorer to see the Pacific Ocean
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
led voyage that first circumnavigated the globe
Ferdinand Magellan
father of modern Physical Oceanography
Matthew Fontaine Maury
mapped world with Roman knowledge showing latitude and longitude
Ptolemy
first determination of Earth's circumference
Eratosthenes
invented the first seaworthy chronometer
John Harrison
discovered and charted the Gulf Stream
Ben Franklin
drilling ship capable of sampling deep into the earth's crust at the bottom of the ocean
JOIDES resolution
sampled sediments and seawater to determine the layering in the ocean
Chikyu
first oceanographic expedition funded solely for scientific purposes
Challenger
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