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143 terms

Medical Terminology - Chapter 12

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Adenoidectomy
Removal of the adenoids.
Adenoid hypertrophy
Increased development.
Adenoids
Lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx.
Alveolar
Pertaining to an alveolus.
Alveolus (plural alveoli)
An individualized section of an air sac in the lung.
Anosmia
Loss of the sense of smell.
Apex of the lung
Uppermost portion of the lung.
Apical
Pertaining to the tip of an organ.
Apnea
Stoppage of breathing.
Asphyxia
Deficient oxygen and increased carbon dioxide in the bloodstream.
Atelectasis
Collapsed lung.
Base of the lung
The lower portion of the lung.
Bronchiectasis
Abnormal widening bronchial tubes.
Bronchiole
Small bronchial tube.
Bronchiolitis
Inflammation of a bronchiole.
Bronchodilator
An agent that opens bronchial tubes.
Bronchopleural
Pertaining to a bronchial tube and pleura.
Bronchospasm
Involuntary muscular contractions in bronchial tubes leading to narrowing of the bronchi.
Bronchus
Branch of the trachea that leads toward the air sacs of the lung.
Carbon dioxide
Gas produced in tissue cells when oxygen and food combine.
Immune reaction
The response of the immune system to foreign invasion.
Cilia
Thin hairs that line the nasal passageways and tubes of the respiratory tract.
Cyanosis
Abnormal condition of bluish coloration of the skin.
Diaphragm
Muscle that separates the chest and abdomen; aids breathing.
Dysphonia
Abnormal voice or sound produced by speaking.
Dyspnea
Abnormal breathing.
Empyema
Pus in the pleural space (cavity) surrounding the lungs.
Epiglottis
Thin piece of cartilage that covers the entrance to the voice box and windpipe when a person is swallowing.
Epiglottitis
Inflammation of the epiglottis.
Expectoration
Coughing up of mucus or sputum from the throat and respiratory tract.
Expiration
Process of breathing out or exhalation.
Glottis
Slit-like opening between the vocal folds of the larynx.
Hemoptysis
Spitting up blood from the respiratory tract.
Hemothorax
Blood in the chest (pleural cavity) surrounding the lungs.
Hilum of the lung
Midline region where the bronchi, blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the lungs.
Hilar
Pertaining to the hilum.
Hypercapnia
Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream.
Hyperpnea
Increase in breathing rate.
Hypoxia
Deficiency of oxygen in tissues.
Inspiration
Act of breathing in or inhalation.
Laryngeal
Pertaining to the larynx or voice box.
Laryngospasm
Involuntary contraction of muscles surrounding the voice box.
Laryngitis
Inflammation of the larynx or voice box.
Larynx
Voice box, located at the upper region of the trachea.
Lobectomy
Removal of a lobe or section of an organ, such as the lung.
Mediastinoscopy
Endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum.
Mediastinum
Region between the lungs in the chest cavity.
Nares
Passageways through the nose carrying air into the nasal cavities.
Nasogastric intubation
Placement of a tube through the nose into the stomach.
Orthopnea
Breathing is only comfortable when a patient is in an upright position.
Oxygen
Gas inhaled and entering the bloodstream through the lungs.
Palatine tonsil
One of a pair of collections of lymphatic tissue in the oropharynx at the back of the mouth near the soft palate.
Paranasal sinus
One of a pair of air cavities in the bones near the nose.
Parietal pleura
Outer layer of the pleura lying closest to the chest wall.
Pharyngeal
Pertaining to the throat or pharynx.
Pharynx
Throat, nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx.
Phrenic nerve
Carries impulses to the diaphragm from the brain.
Pleura
Double-folded membrane surrounding each lung.
Pleural cavity
Space between the pleura surrounding each lung.
Pneumoconiosis
Abnormal condition of collection of dust particles in the lungs.
Pneumonectomy
Removal of a lung.
Pneumothorax
Collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity between the pleura and surrounding the lungs.
Pulmonary
Pertaining to the lungs.
Pulmonary parenchyma
Essential parts of the lungs responsible for respiration; bronchioles and alveoli.
Pyothorax
Pus collection in the pleural cavity.
Respiration
Exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) at the lung capillaries (external respiration) and at the tissue capillaries (internal respiration).
Rhinoplasty
Surgical repair of the nose.
Rhinorrhea
Discharge of mucus from the nose.
Sinusitis
Inflammation of paranasal sinuses.
Spirometer
An instrument to measure breathing.
Tachypnea
Rapid breathing.
Thoracic
Pertaining to the chest.
Thoracoscopy
Endoscopic visualization of the chest.
Thoracotomy
Incision of the chest.
Tonsillectomy
Removal of tonsils.
Trachea
Windpipe.
Tracheal stenosis
Narrowing of the trachea.
Tracheotomy
Incision of the trachea.
Visceral pleura
Innermost membrane of the pleura, lying closest to the lung tissue itself.
Anthracosis
Abnormal condition of cola dust in the lungs; black lung disease.
Asbestosis
Abnormal condition of asbestos fiber particles in the lungs.
Asthma
Chronic inflammation disorder, characterized by airway obstruction and caused by bronchial edema, bronchoconstriction, and increased mucus production.
Atelectasis
Collapsed lung.
Auscultation
Listening for sounds in the chest and abdomen using a stethoscope.
Bacilli
Rod-shaped bacteria that are the cause of tuberculosis.
Bronchioalveolar lavage
Irrigation or washing of a bronchus by injecting fluid through a bronchoscope and then reviewing it to analyze the contents.
Bronchiectasis
Chronic dilate of bronchial tubes caused by infection of the lower lobes of the lungs.
Bronchoscopy
Visual examination of the bronchial tubes using an endoscope or bronchoscope.
Chest tomograms
Series of x-ray images that show an organ in depth.
Chronic bronchitis
Inflammation of the bronchi persisting over a long period of time.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Lung and bronchial tube conditions that block and damage airways and persist over a long period of time. Examples are chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
Computed tomography of the chest
Computer generated x-ray images showing thoracic structures in cross-section.
Cor pulmonale
Enlargement of the right side of the heart due to lung disease.
Croup
Acute viral infection in children and infants marked by obstruction of the larynx and barking cough.
Cystic fibrosis
Inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in mucous secretions that do drain normally.
Diphtheria
Acute infection of the throat caused by diphtheria bacteria; characterized by formation of a thick membrane that destructs the throat and breathing.
Emphysema
Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls.
Endotracheal intubation
Tube is placed through the mouth and throat into the trachea to establish an airway.
Epistaxis
Nosebleed.
Exudate
Fluid cells or other substances that slowly leave cells or capillaries through pores or breaks in cell membranes.
Hydrothorax
Water or fluid that accumulates in the pleural space surrounding the lungs.
Laryngoscopy
Endoscopic visual examination of the larynx.
Lung biopsy
Surgical removal of lung tissue followed by microscopic examination of cells.
Lung cancer
Malignant tumor arising from the lungs and bronchial tubes.
Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest
Magnetic waves create images of the chest in all three planes of the body.
Mediastinoscopy
Endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum.
Mesothelioma
Rare malignant tumor arising in the pleura and associated with asbestos exposure.
Obstructive lung disease
Narrowed airways result in resistance to airflow during breathing. Examples are asthma, bronchiectasis, COPD, and cystic fibrosis.
Palliative
Relieving, but not curing an illness.
Paroxysmal
Pertaining to a sudden occurrence.
Percussion
Tapping on the surface to determine the underlying structure.
Pertussis
Whooping cough; bacterial infection of the throat, larynx and trachea.
Pleural effusion
Collection of fluid in the pleural cavity.
Pleural rub
Scratchy sound produced by inflamed or irritated pleural surfaces rubbing against each other.
Pleurisy
Inflammation of the pleura; pleuritis.
Pleurodynia
Pain that is caused by inflammation of the pleural cavity or intercostal muscles.
Pneumonia
Acute inflammation and infection of the alveoli, which fill with pus, and produces inflammation.
Pneumothorax
Presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity causing the lung to collapse.
Positron emission tomography of the lung
Radioactive substance is injected into a patient and the images reveal the metabolic activity in the lung for diagnosis of malignant tumors.
Pulmonary abscess
Collection of pus in the lungs.
Pulmonary angiography
X-ray recording of lung blood vessels after injecting contrast into the pulmonary artery.
Pulmonary edema
Collection fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles of the lung.
Pulmonary embolism
Clot or material from a distant vein that blocks a blood vessel in the lung.
Pulmonary fibrosis
Formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lung.
Pulmonary function tests
Tests that measure the ventilation (breathing) mechanics of the lung.
Pulmonary infarction
Lung tissue that is damaged or dies as a result of blood vessel occlusion and tissue ischemia.
Purulent
Pus-filled.
Rale
Abnormal, fine, crackling sound heard on auscultation when there is fluid in the alveoli.
Restrictive lung disease
A condition in which lung expansion is limited by diseases that affect the chest wall pleural or lung tissue itself.
Rhonchus (rhonchi)
Loud, rumbling sound heard on auscultation of bronchi that are obstructed by sputum.
Sarcoidosis
Chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause in which small nodules or tubercles develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs.
Silicosis
Silica glass dust collects in the lungs; a type of pneumonia.
Sputum
Material expelled from the chest by coughing or by clearing the throat; phlegm.
Sputum culture
Sputum is collected and placed on a growth medium to analyze the type of microorganisms that may be prevented.
Stridor
Strained, high-pitched noisy breathing associated with obstruction of the larynx or trachea.
Thoracentesis
Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pleural space.
Thoracoscopy
Visual examination of the chest using small incision and an endoscope.
Tracheostomy
New opening of the trachea to the outside of the body.
Tuberculin test
Determines past or present exposure to tuberculosis based on a positive skin test.
Tuberculosis
Infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lungs are usually involved but other organs may be affected.
Tube thoracostomy
Chest tube is passed through an opening in the skin of the chest to continuously drain a pleural effusion.
Ventilation-perfusion scan
A detection device records radioactivity after an injection of a radioisotope or inhalation of small amount of radioactive gas.
Wheeze
Continuous high-pitched whistling sound heard when air is forced through a narrow space during inspiration or expiration.