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Involuntary muscular contractions in bronchial tubes leading to narrowing of the bronchi.
Thin piece of cartilage that covers the entrance to the voice box and windpipe when a person is swallowing.
Hilum of the lung
Midline region where the bronchi, blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the lungs.
One of a pair of collections of lymphatic tissue in the oropharynx at the back of the mouth near the soft palate.
Collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity between the pleura and surrounding the lungs.
Essential parts of the lungs responsible for respiration; bronchioles and alveoli.
Exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) at the lung capillaries (external respiration) and at the tissue capillaries (internal respiration).
Chronic inflammation disorder, characterized by airway obstruction and caused by bronchial edema, bronchoconstriction, and increased mucus production.
Irrigation or washing of a bronchus by injecting fluid through a bronchoscope and then reviewing it to analyze the contents.
Chronic dilate of bronchial tubes caused by infection of the lower lobes of the lungs.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Lung and bronchial tube conditions that block and damage airways and persist over a long period of time. Examples are chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
Computed tomography of the chest
Computer generated x-ray images showing thoracic structures in cross-section.
Acute viral infection in children and infants marked by obstruction of the larynx and barking cough.
Inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in mucous secretions that do drain normally.
Acute infection of the throat caused by diphtheria bacteria; characterized by formation of a thick membrane that destructs the throat and breathing.
Tube is placed through the mouth and throat into the trachea to establish an airway.
Fluid cells or other substances that slowly leave cells or capillaries through pores or breaks in cell membranes.
Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest
Magnetic waves create images of the chest in all three planes of the body.
Obstructive lung disease
Narrowed airways result in resistance to airflow during breathing. Examples are asthma, bronchiectasis, COPD, and cystic fibrosis.
Scratchy sound produced by inflamed or irritated pleural surfaces rubbing against each other.
Acute inflammation and infection of the alveoli, which fill with pus, and produces inflammation.
Positron emission tomography of the lung
Radioactive substance is injected into a patient and the images reveal the metabolic activity in the lung for diagnosis of malignant tumors.
X-ray recording of lung blood vessels after injecting contrast into the pulmonary artery.
Lung tissue that is damaged or dies as a result of blood vessel occlusion and tissue ischemia.
Restrictive lung disease
A condition in which lung expansion is limited by diseases that affect the chest wall pleural or lung tissue itself.
Loud, rumbling sound heard on auscultation of bronchi that are obstructed by sputum.
Chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause in which small nodules or tubercles develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs.
Sputum is collected and placed on a growth medium to analyze the type of microorganisms that may be prevented.
Strained, high-pitched noisy breathing associated with obstruction of the larynx or trachea.
Infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lungs are usually involved but other organs may be affected.
Chest tube is passed through an opening in the skin of the chest to continuously drain a pleural effusion.
A detection device records radioactivity after an injection of a radioisotope or inhalation of small amount of radioactive gas.
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