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114 terms

Medical Terminology - Chapter 13

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Albumin
Protein found in blood.
Anisocytosis
Inequality in the size of red blood cells.
Antibody
Protein made by white blood cells in response to foreign substances (antigens) in the blood.
Anticoagulant
Substance that prevents blood clotting.
Antigen
Foreign agent that stimulates the production of an antibody.
Basophil
White blood cell (leukocyte) containing dark granules that stain with a basic dye.
Bilirubin
Orange-yellow pigment found in bile. It is released from the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die.
Coagulation
Process of blood clotting.
Coagulopathy
Disease of blood clotting.
Colony-stimulating factor
Protein that stimulates the growth and proliferation of white blood cells (granulocytes).
Cytology
Study of cells.
Differentiation
Specialization of cells from immature to mature forms.
Electrophoresis
Technique used to separate serum proteins by electrical charge.
Eosinophil
White blood cell whose granules stain intensely with an acidic eosin (reddish) dye; elevated in allergic reactions.
Eosinophilia
Increase in numbers of eosinophils in the bloodstream.
Erythroblast
Immature, developing red blood cell.
Erythrocytopenia
Deficiency of red blood cells.
Erythropoiesis
Formation of red blood cells.
Erythropoietin
Substance (hormone) produced by the kidney to stimulate bone marrow to produce erythrocytes.
Fibrin
Protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot.
Fibrinogen
Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process.
Globulins
Major blood proteins; immunoglobulins, alpha, beta and gamma globulins are examples.
Granulocyte
White blood cell with numerous dark-staining granules; neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil.
Granulocytopenia
Deficiency of granulocytes.
Hematopoiesis
Formation of blood cells.
Hemoglobin
Blood protein containing iron; carries oxygen in red blood cells.
Hemoglobinopathy
Disease or defect of hemoglobin production. Sickle cell anemia is an example.
Hemolysis
Destruction or breakdown of blood; specifically red blood cells.
Hemostasis
Stoppage of bleeding or circulation of blood.
Heparin
Anticoagulant found in blood and tissues.
Hypochromic
Pertaining to deficiency in color; decrease in hemoglobin in red blood cells.
Immune system
Response of the immune system to foreign invasion.
Immunoglobulin
Antibody-containing protein in the blood; IgA, IgG, IgM,
Leukapheresis
Mechanical separation of white blood cells from the rest of the blood.
Leukocyte
White blood cell.
Leukocytopenia
Deficiency of white blood cells.
Lymphocyte
White blood cell with a single nucleus (mononuclear); capable of producing antibodies.
Macrocytosis
Presence of large red blood cells in the blood.
Macrophage
Large phagocytic cell migrating from the blood into tissues.
Megakaryocyte
Large, giant cell with a big nucleus; platelet precursor found in the bone marrow.
Microcytosis
Increased numbers of smaller than normal red blood cells.
Monoblast
Immature monocyte.
Monocyte
White blood cell (agranulocyte) with one large nucleus; enter tissues as macrophages.
Mononuclear
Pertaining to a white blood cell with a single, round nucleus; monocyte or lymphocyte.
Morphology
Study of the shape and form of cells, particularly red blood cells.
Myeloblast
Immature granulocytic while blood cell; a cell normally only found in the bone marrow.
Myeloid
Derived from bone marrow.
Myelogenous
Pertaining to cells produced in the bone marrow.
Myelopoiesis
Formation and development of bone marrow or cells that originate from it.
Neutropenia
Deficiency of neutrophils.
Neutrophil
White blood cell with dark granules that stain with a neutral dye; phagocyte formed in the bone marrow and the body's first line of defense against disease.
Neutrophilia
Increased numbers of neutrophils.
Pancytopenia
Deficiency of all (blood) cells.
Phagocyte
Cell that engulfs another cell or foreign organism and destroys it.
Plasma
Liquid portion of blood containing proteins, water, salts, nutrients, hormones and vitamins.
Plasmapheresis
Removal of plasma from withdrawn blood by centrifuge.
Platelet
Clotting cell or thrombocyte.
Plateletpheresis
Separation of platelets from the rest of the blood.
Poikilocytosis
Variation in the shape of red blood cells.
Polymorphonuclear
Pertaining to a multi-lobed nucleus (in granulocytic white blood cells).
Prothrombin
Plasma protein converted to thrombin in the clotting process.
Reticulocyte
Immature erythrocyte with a network of strands (reticulum).
Rh factor
Antigen (protein) on red blood cells of Rh positive individuals.
Serum
Plasma minus clotting proteins (prothrombin and fibrinogen) and clotting cells.
Sideropenia
Deficiency of iron in the blood.
Spherocytosis
Increase in numbers of sphere-shaped red blood cells, as in a type of anemia (hemolytic anemia).
Stem cell
Unspecialized cell that gives rise to all forms of specialized cells in the body. Hematopoietic stem cells are found in the bone marrow and lead to the development of all types of blood cells.
Thrombin
Enzyme necessary for blood clotting (converts fibrinogen to fibrin in the clotting process).
Thrombocyte
Platelet; clotting cell.
Thrombocytopenia
Deficiency of clotting cells.
Thrombolytic therapy
Treatment with drugs to break down clots that may abnormally form in blood vessels.
Thrombosis
Condition of clot formation.
Acute lymphocytic leukemia
Malignant, immature lymphocytes multiply in the blood, bone marrow, and lymphatic system.
Acute myelogenous leukemia
Malignant, immature granulocytes called myeloblasts multiply in the bone marrow and bloodstream.
Antiglobulin test
Test for the presence of antibodies that coat and damage erythrocytes; Coombs test.
Apheresis
Withdrawal and separation of blood elements.
Aplastic anemia
Failure of blood cell production due to aplasia (absence of formation) of bone marrow cells.
Autologous transfusion
Removal and then reinfusion of a patient's own blood or blood components.
Bleeding time
Time required for blood to stop flowing from a tiny puncture wound.
Blood transfusion
Blood cells or whole blood from a closely match donor are infused into a patient.
Bone marrow biopsy
Needle aspiration of a small amount of bone marrow followed by examination under a microscope.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Malignant, but relatively mature lymphocytes, multiply in bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia
Malignant, but relatively mature granulocytic leukocytes multiply in the bloodstream.
Coagulation time
Time required for venous blood to clot in a test tube.
Complete blood count
Determination of the number of red and white blood cells, platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red cell indices (MCH, MCV, MCHC) in a sample of blood.
Dyscrasia
Blood disease.
Ecchymoses
Large blue or purplish patches on the skin (bruises).
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Measurement of the speed at which erythrocytes settle or fall to the bottom of a test tube.
Granulocytosis
Increased numbers of granulocytes in the blood.
Hematocrit
Percentage of red blood cells in a given volume of blood.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant
Peripheral (found in the blood) stem cells from a compatible donor are administered into the vein of a recipient.
Hemochromatosis
Excessive deposits of iron throughout the body.
Hemoglobin test
Total amount of hemoglobin in a sample of blood.
Hemolytic anemia
Reduction in erythrocytes due to excessive destruction of red blood cells.
Hemophilia
Hereditary disease of blood clotting failure with abnormal bleeding. Affected individuals are lacking a blood clotting factor (factor VIII or factor IX).
Intrinsic factor
Substance normally found in gastric (stomach) juice that helps absorption of vitamin B12 into the bloodstream.
Mononucleosis
Infectious disease marked by increased numbers of leukocytes and enlarged cervical lymph nodes.
Multiple myeloma
Malignant tumor of bone marrow; overproduction of immunoglobulins and destruction of bone tissue.
Palliative
Relieving, but not curing illness.
Partial thromboplastin time
Measurement of presence of plasma factors that act in a portion of the coagulation pathway.
Pernicious anemia
Lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body.
Petechiae
Small, pinpoint hemorrhages caused by bleeding under the skin.
Platelet count
Number of platelets per cubic millimeter (mm3 ) or microliter ( L) of blood.
Polycythemia vera
Increase in numbers of red blood cells (erythremia).
Prothrombin time
Test of the ability of blood to clot.
Purpura
Multiple pinpoint hemorrhages and accumulation of blood under the skin caused by deficiency of clotting cells (platelets).
Red blood cell count
Number of erythrocytes per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood.
Red blood cell morphology
Microscopic examination of a stained blood smear to determine the shape of individual red blood cells.
Relapse
Return of symptoms of disease.
Remission
Disappearance of symptoms of disease.
Sickle cell anemia
Hereditary condition marked by abnormal sickle shape of erythrocytes and by hemolysis.
Thalassemia
Inherited defect in the ability to produce hemoglobin, usually seen in persons of Mediterranean background.
White blood cell count
Number of leukocytes per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood.
White blood cell differential
Percentage of the total white blood cell count made up by different types of leukocytes.