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77 terms

Medical Terminology - Chapter 14

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Acquired immunity
Formation of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Depression or suppression of the immune system after exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); marked by opportunistic infections, secondary neoplasms, and neurologic problems.
Adenoids
Masses of lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx.
Allergen
Substance capable of causing a specific hypersensitivity in a body; an antigen.
Allergy
Abnormal hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to an antigen (allergen).
Anaphylaxis
Exaggerated or unusual hypersensitivity to foreign protein or other substance.
Antibody
Protein produced in the bloodstream by lymphocytes in response to a specific antigen, such as a bacterium or toxin. Antibodies destroy or weaken antigens.
Atopy
Intense allergic reaction (such as asthma) influenced by hereditary tendency or predisposition.
Autoimmune disease
Chronic disabling disease caused by the abnormal production of antibodies to normal body tissues; multiple sclerosis, lupus erythematosus are examples.
Axillary node
Lymph node under the arm.
B cell
A lymphocyte that originates in bone marrow and transforms into a plasma cell to secrete antibodies.
CD4+ cells
Helper T cells that carry the CD4+ protein antigen on their surface.
Cell-mediated immunity
Type of immune response that involves T cell lymphocytes. These lymphocytes act directly on antigens to destroy them.
Cervical node
Lymph node in the neck.
Cytokine
Protein that aids cells to destroy antigens. Examples are interleukins and interferons.
Cytotoxic T cell
T cell lymphocyte that directly kills foreign cells; T8 cell.
Dendritic cell
A type of macrophage that captures antigens and presents them to T cells for destruction.
ELISA
Test to detect anti-HIV antibodies in blood. This is a screening test for AIDS.
Helper T cell
Lymphocyte that aids a B cell lymphocyte in recognizing antigens and stimulating antibody production.
Hodgkin disease
Malignant tumor of lymphatic tissue in the spleen and lymph nodes.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Virus (retrovirus) that causes AIDS.
Humoral immunity
Type of immune response in which a B cell lymphocyte transforms into a plasma cell and secretes antibodies.
Hypersensitivity
Abnormal condition characterized by an exaggerated response of the immune system to an antigen.
Hypersplenism
Syndrome of spleen enlargement (splenomegaly) and destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis).
Immune response
The body's capability to resist foreign organisms and toxins that can damage tissue and organs.
Immunoelectrophoresis
Laboratory test that separates immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgD, IgE, and IgA).
Immunoglobulins
Antibodies (proteins) secreted by B-cell lymphocytes (plasma cells).
Immunosuppression
Blocking or turning off the normal immune response.
Immunotherapy
Use of immunologic techniques to treat disease.
Inguinal node
Lymph node in the groin region.
Interferons
Anti-viral proteins secreted by lymphocytes.
Interleukins
Proteins (cytokines) that stimulate the immune system including B & T cell lymphocytes.
Interstitial fluid
Fluid that fills the spaces in between cells.
Kaposi sarcoma
Malignant tumor of skin and connective tissue; associated with AIDS.
Lymph
Fluid that circulates within lymph vessels and lymph nodes.
Lymphadenitis
Inflammation of lymph nodes.
Lymphadenopathy
Disease of lymph nodes.
Lymph capillaries
Tiny lymph vessels that carry lymph through the body.
Lymphedema
Abnormal collection of fluid in tissue spaces caused by obstruction of lymph vessels and backflow of lymph.
Lymph node
Mass of stationary lymphatic tissue along the path of lymph vessels.
Lymphocytes
White blood cells that develop primarily in lymph nodes and the spleen and fight against foreign organisms.
Lymphocytosis
Increase in numbers of lymphocytes in the bloodstream.
Lymphocytopenia
Deficiency of lymphocytes.
Lymphoid organs
Organs containing and derived from lymphatic tissue; spleen, thymus gland and lymph nodes.
Lymphoma
Malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymphatic tissue.
Lymphopoiesis
Formation of lymphocytes.
Lymph vessels
Carry lymph throughout the body.
Macrophage
Large phagocyte found in lymphatic tissues and connective tissues; derived from a monocyte.
Mediastinal node
Lymph node in the mediastinum (central area between the lungs in the chest).
Monoclonal antibody
Antibody produced in a laboratory to attack specific antigens.
Multiple myeloma
Malignant tumor of bone marrow cells (plasma cells that produce immunoglobulins).
Natural immunity
Person's own genetic ability to fight off disease. It includes phagocytes and lymphocytes such as natural killer cells.
Natural killer cell
Lymphocyte that recognizes and destroys foreign cells by releasing proteins called cytokines.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Malignant tumor of cells (lymphocytes and large macrophages called histocytes) found in lymph nodes and spleen
Opportunistic infections
Infectious diseases associated with AIDS; toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, herpes simplex, and Pneumocystosis carinii pneumonia (PCP).
Plasma cell
B cell lymphocyte that secretes antibodies.
Protease inhibitor (PI)
Drug used to treat AIDS by blocking production of protease, an enzyme that helps HIV to reproduce.
Retrovirus
Virus that makes copies of itself using the host cell's DNA, a process that is the reverse of the normal replication mechanism in cells. HIV is a retrovirus.
Reverse transcriptase inhibitor
Drug used to treat AIDS by blocking an enzyme (reverse transcriptor), needed to make copies of HIV.
Right lymphatic duct
Receives lymph from the right side of the body and empties lymph into a vein in the neck.
Spleen
Organ adjacent to the stomach (in the LUQ) that produces, stores, and eliminates blood cells.
Splenectomy
Removal of the spleen.
Splenomegaly
Enlargement of the spleen.
Suppressor T cell
Lymphocyte that inhibits the activity of B and T cell lymphocytes.
T cell
Lymphocyte originating in the thymus gland and destroys antigens by direct action or production of cytokines such as interferons and interleukins.
Thoracic duct
Large lymphatic vessel in the upper chest.
Thymectomy
Removal of the thymus gland.
Thymoma
Malignant tumor of the thymus gland.
Thymus gland
Lymphoid organ in the mediastinum that produces T cell lymphocytes and aids in the immune response.
Tonsils
Masses of lymphatic tissue on either side of the back of the mouth.
Toxic
Pertaining to a toxin, which is a poison or harmful substance.
Toxins
Poison or harmful substance.
Vaccination
Introduction of a vaccine (containing dead or weakened antigen) to produce immunity. It is a type of acquired immunity.
Vaccine
Weakened or dead antigens to induce antibody production.
Viral load test
Measures the amount of HIV in the blood stream.
Wasting syndrome
Weight loss and decrease in muscle strength, appetite, and mental activity that occurs with AIDS.
Western blot
Specific test to detect presence of anti-HIV antibodies in the bloodstream.