Systems Analysis and Design Chapter 3
Terms in this set (43)
the process of planning, scheduling, monitoring, controlling, and reporting upon the development of an information system.
the three major components of a project: cost, scope, and time. A project manager tries to find the optimal balance among these factors.
usually a senior systems analyst or an IT department manager if the project is large. An analyst or programmer/analyst may manage smaller projects.
handles administrative responsibilities for development team and negotiates with users who might have conflicting requirements or want changes that would require additional time or expense.
includes identifying project tasks and estimating project time and costs.
involves the creation of a specific timetable to facilitate completion of a project. Scheduling also involves selecting and staffing the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members.
requires guiding, supervising, and coordinating the project team's workload.
tasks include regular process reports to management, users, and the project team itself.
work breakdown structure (WBS)
breaking a project down into a series of smaller tasks
a horizontal bar chart that illustrates a schedule. Developed many years ago as a production control technique and still are in common use.
each ___ represents several activities. Allows complex projects to be viewed as a set of integrated modules.
program evaluation review technique (PERT)
developed by U.S. navy to manage very complex projects such as the construction of nuclear submarines. At approximately the same time, the critical path method (CPM) was developed by private industry to meet similar project management needs. The important distinctions between the two methods disappeared over time.
analyzes a large, complex project as a series of individual tasks called project tasks.
aka activity-any work that has a beginning and an end and requires the use of company resources including people, time, and money. Examples include conducting a series of interviews, designing a report, selecting software, waiting for the delivery of equipment, and training users.
event or milestone
a reference point that marks a major occurrence. Events are used to monitor progress and manage a project.
often two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task.
amount of work that one person can complete in one day.
most optimistic outcome
most likely outcome
most pessimistic outcome
an important value that managers add to estimates so they can be analyzed.
a logical sequence of tasks in a work break-down structure. Can involve sequential tasks, multiple successor tasks, and multiple predecessor tasks.
component of a PERT/CPM chart that contains important scheduling and duration information about a task. Each task in a project is represented by its own _____ in the PERT/CPM chart.
a brief descriptive name for a task, which does not have to be unique in the project. For example, a task named Conduct Interviews might appear in several phases of the project.
a number or code that uniquely identifies a task.
the amount of time it will take to complete a task
the time that a task is scheduled to begin
the time that a task is scheduled to be completed.
task is a _______when it has to be completed in a serial sequence.
if tasks can be completed at the same time, they are said to be ___or parallel.
each of the concurrent tasks of a predecessor task is called a ______.
a series of events and activities with no slack time. If any activity along the critical path falls behind schedule, the entire project schedule is similarly delayed. _____includes all activities that are vital to the project schedule.
the amount of time by which an event can be late without delaying the project. _____for an event is the difference between its latest completion time (LCT) and earliest completion time (ECT)
a powerful, full-featured program that holds the dominant share of the project management software market.
software that is supported by a large group of users and developers.
an event that could affect the project negatively.
the process of identifying, evaluating, tracking, and controlling tasks to minimize their impact.
risk management plan
includes a review of the project's scope, stakeholders, budget, schedule, and any other internal or external factors that might affect the project. ____should define project roles and responsibilities, risk management methods and procedures, categories of risks, and contingency plans.
qualitative risk analysis
evaluating risk by estimating the probability that it will occur and the degree of impact.
quantitative risk analysis
evaluating risk in terms of the actual impact in terms of dollars, time, project scope, and quality.
risk response plan
a proactive effort to anticipate a risk and describe an action plan to deal with it. An effective _____can reduce the overall impact by triggering a timely and appropriate action.
process by which projects with very general scrope definitions expand gradually, without specific authorization.
concept stated by Frederick Brooks Jr., an IBM engineer, who observed that adding manpower to a late software project only makes it later.