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222 terms

Medical Terminology - Chapter 15

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Acetabulum
Rounded depression or socket in the pelvis, which joins the femur forming the hip joint.
Acromion
Outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder.
Articular cartilage
Thin layer of cartilage surrounding the bones in the joint space.
Calcaneal
Pertaining to the calcaneus (heel bone).
Calcaneus
Heel bone.
Calcium
One of the mineral constituents of bone.
Cancellous bone
Spongy, porous bone tissue in the inner part of a bone.
Carpals
Bones of the wrist.
Cartilage
Flexible, connective tissue that is firmer than muscle, yet softer than bone.
Cervical vertebrae
Seven backbones in the neck.
Chondrocostal
Pertaining to cartilage than is attached to the ribs.
Clavicle
Collar bone.
Coccyx
Tailbone.
Collagen
Dense connective tissue strands of protein found in bone.
Colles fracture
Broken bone occurring in the wrist at the lower end of the radius.
Comminuted fracture
Broken bone that is splintered or crushed.
Compact bone
Hard, dense bone tissue.
Condyle
Knuckle-like process at the end of a bone near the joint.
Cranial bones
Bones of the skull; ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid, and temporal bones.
Craniotome
Instrument to cut the skull (cranium).
Craniotomy
Incision of the skull.
Crepitus
Crackling sound produced when ends of bone rub against each other or against roughened cartilage.
Decalcification
Loss or removal of calcium from bones or teeth.
Diaphysis
Shaft or mid-portion of a long bone.
Epiphyseal plate
Layer of cartilage at the ends of long bones where lengthwise bone growth takes place.
Epiphysis
Each end of a long bone.
Ethmoid bone
Thin, delicate bone that supports the nasal cavity and forms part of the orbits of the eye.
Ewing sarcoma
Malignant bone tumor occurring in children.
Exostosis
Bony growth arising from the surface of a bone.
Facial bones
Bones of the face; lacrimal, mandibular, maxillary, nasal, vomer, and zygomatic bones.
Femoral
Pertaining to the femur.
Femur
Thigh bone.
Fibula
Smaller of the two lower leg bones.
Fibular
Pertaining to the fibula.
Fissure
Narrow, slit-like opening in or between bones.
Fontanelle
Soft spot between skull bones of an infant.
Foramen
Opening or passage in bones where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave.
Fossa
Shallow cavity in a bone.
Frontal bone
Skull bone that forms the forehead and bony sockets that contain the eyes.
Haversian canals
Minute spaces for blood vessels in compact bone.
Humeral
Pertaining to the humerus (upper arm bone).
Humerus
Upper arm bone.
Hypercalcemia
High levels of calcium in the blood.
Iliac
Pertaining to the ilium (upper and largest portion of the pelvic bone).
Ilium
Upper and largest portion of the pelvic (hip) bone.
Impacted fracture
Broken bone in which one fragment is driven firmly into the other fragment.
Ischial
Pertaining to the ischium (posterior portion of the pelvic bone).
Ischium
Posterior (back) portion of the pelvic (hip) bone.
Kyphosis
Abnormal condition of outward curvature (convexity) of the thoracic spine.
Lacrimal bones
Two small facial bones that contain tear glands and canals for the passage of tear ducts.
Lamina
One of two posterior (back) arches of a vertebra.
Laminectomy
Surgical removal of the posterior portion of a vertebra to relieve pressure on a spinal nerve or spinal cord from a displaced intervertebral disk.
Lordosis
Forward curvature of the lumbar spinal column. In its extreme form it is known as "swayback."
Lumbar vertebrae
Backbones (5) in the region of the waist (middle section below the chest).
Lumbosacral
Pertaining to the lower bones of the back (lumbar and sacral regions).
Malleolar
Pertaining to a malleolus.
Malleolus
Either of two bony enlargements (processes) on each side of an ankle.
Mandible
Lower jaw bone.
Mandibular
Pertaining to the lower jaw bone.
Manubrium
Upper portion of the sternum.
Mastoid process
Round projection (process) on the temporal bone behind the ear.
Medullary cavity
Inner section of a bone containing soft bone marrow tissue.
Metacarpals
Hand bones.
Metacarpectomy
Surgical excision of hand bones
Metaphysis
Flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis (shaft) of the bone and the epiphyseal plate at the end of the bone.
Metatarsalgia
Foot pain.
Metatarsals
Foot bones.
Myelopoiesis
Formation of bone marrow.
Nasal bone
One of two facial bones that form the nose.
Occipital bone
Forms the posterior portion of the skull.
Olecranal
Pertaining to the elbow (olecranon).
Olecranon
Large process on the end (proximal) of the ulna; elbow.
Orthopedics
Surgical specialty devoted to straightening, correcting and treating deformities and diseases in bones.
Osseous tissue
Bone tissue.
Ossification
Process of forming bone.
Osteitis
Inflammation of bone.
Osteoblast
Bone cell responsible for forming bony tissue.
Osteoclast
Large bone cell that functions to absorb and remove unwanted bony tissue during growth and healing of fractures.
Osteodystrophy
Abnormal development of bone.
Osteogenesis imperfecta
Congenital bone disease in which bones are unusually brittle and fragile.
Osteogenic sarcoma
Malignant (cancerous) tumor of bone tissue.
Osteomalacia
Softening of bones with inadequate amounts of mineral (calcium) in bone; rickets.
Osteomyelitis
Inflammation of bone and bone marrow.
Osteopenia
Deficiency of bone tissue caused by destruction of bone tissue that exceeds the rate of bone matrix growth.
Osteoporosis
Abnormal condition of increased loss of bony tissue. Bones become thin, weak, brittle, and break easily.
Osteotome
Instrument to cut bone.
Parietal bones
Two bones on either side of the skull.
Patella
Kneecap.
Pelvimetry
Measurement of the hip bone to determine if delivery of the infant through the vagina is possible.
Periosteum
Membrane surrounding bones.
Peroneal
Pertaining to the fibula.
Phalangeal
Pertaining to finger and toe bones.
Phalanges
Finger and toe bones.
Phosphorus
Mineral found in bones and teeth.
Pubic symphysis
Area of confluence of the two pubic bones in the midline of the pelvic bone. It is a slightly movable joint separated by a disk of fibrocartilage.
Pubis
One of two bones forming the front portion of the hipbone.
Radial
Pertaining to the radius, a bone in the lower arm (thumb side of the wrist).
Radius
One of two bones in the lower arm (connecting to the wrist on the thumb side).
Red bone marrow
Soft bone tissue in spongy, cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis.
Reduction
Reconnection of a bone to its normal position after a fracture.
Ribs
Twelve pairs of curved, elongated bones in the chest.
Sacral vertebrae
Bones of the sacrum (lower back below the lumbar region).
Scapula
Shoulder blade.
Scapular
Pertaining to the shoulder blade.
Scoliosis
Abnormal condition of lateral (sideways) curvature of the spine.
Sella turcica
Depression in the sphenoid bone at the base of the skull; location of the pituitary gland.
Sinus
Hollow, air cavity within a bone.
Sphenoid bone
Bat-shaped bone that forms part of the base of the skull.
Spinal stenosis
Narrowing of the neural canal or nerve root canals in the lumbar spine.
Spondylolisthesis
Forward slipping or subluxation of one vertebra over another.
Spondylosis
Abnormal condition of the spine (vertebral column) characterized by stiffness and fixation of vertebral joints.
Sternum
Breast bone.
Styloid process
Pole-like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull.
Subcostal
Pertaining to under the ribs.
Subpatellar
Pertaining to under the patella (knee cap).
Supraclavicular
Pertaining to above the clavicle (collar bone).
Suture
Immovable, fibrous joint, as between bones of the skull.
Talipes
Club foot; foot is fixed in an abnormal position due to a congenital deformity of the ankle and foot.
Tarsals
Ankle bones.
Tarsectomy
Removal of an anklebone.
Temporal bones
Two bones on each side of the skull near the ear.
Temporomandibular joint
Connection between the temporal bone of the skull and the mandibular bone of the jaw (lower jaw bone).
Thoracic vertebrae
Twelve backbones in the region of the chest.
Tibia
Larger of the two lower leg bones.
Tibial
Pertaining to the larger of the two lower leg bones.
Trabeculae
Supporting bundles of fibers in cancellous, spongy (soft) bone.
Trochanter
Large process at the neck of the femur (thigh bone).
Tubercle
Small, rounded process on a bone.
Tuberosity
Large, rounded process on a bone.
Ulna
One of two bones in the lower arm; connects to the wrist on the little finger side.
Ulnar
Pertaining to the ulna.
Vertebra (pl. vertebrae)
A backbone.
Vomer
Thin plate of bone that forms part of the nasal septum, which is the wall separating the nostrils.
Xiphoid process
Lower, narrow portion of the sternum (breastbone).
Yellow bone matter
Fatty tissue in the shaft of long bones.
Zygomatic bones
Cheekbones of the face.
Abduction
Muscle movement away from the midline of the body.
Achondroplasia
Inherited disorder in which the bones of the arms and legs fail to grow to normal size; achondroplastic dwarf.
Adduction
Muscle movement toward the midline of the body.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Damage to nerves on the lateral (side) columns of the spinal cord and lower region of the brain, leading to progressive muscular paralysis.
Ankylosing spondylitis
Chronic inflammatory joint disease involving the backbones; marked by stiffness and eventual fusion (ankylosis) of involved joints.
Ankylosis
Immobility (fusion) of a joint due to disease, injury, or surgical procedure.
Arthrodesis
Surgical fusion of a joint to eliminate movement.
Arthrotomy
Incision of a joint.
Articular cartilage
Cartilage surrounding bones in a joint.
Articulation
A connection between bones; joint.
Atrophy
Wasting away (lack of development) of a normally developed organ or tissue (especially muscle).
Bunion
Abnormal swelling of the joint between the big toe and a bone of the foot.
Bursa (pl. bursae)
Sac of fluid between tendons and bones near a joint.
Bursitis
Inflammation of a bursa surrounding a joint.
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Compression (by a wrist ligament) of the median nerve as it passes between the ligament and bones and tendons of the wrist.
Chondroma
Benign tumor of cartilage.
Chondromalacia
Softening of cartilage.
Dislocation
Displacement of a bone from its joint.
Dorsiflexion
Backward (upward) bending of the foot.
Extension
Increasing the angle between two bones and straightening a limb.
Fascia
Fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscle.
Fasciectomy
Removal of fascia.
Fibromyalgia
Chronic pain and stiffness in muscles and fibrous tissue, especially in the shoulders, neck, hips and knees.
Flexion
Decreasing the angle between two bones, as in bending a limb.
Ganglion
Cystic mass arising from a tendon.
Gouty arthritis
Inflammation of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the blood and uric acid crystals deposited in joints.
Hemarthrosis
Condition of blood in a joint.
Hydrarthrosis
Condition of water or fluid in a joint.
Hypertrophy
Increase in size of tissue or an organ due to increase in size of individual cells.
Hyperuricemia
Increase in uric acid in the blood.
Leiomyoma
Benign tumor of smooth, involuntary muscle.
Leiomyosarcoma
Malignant tumor of smooth muscle.
Ligament
Connective tissue binding bones to other bones.
Ligamentous
Pertaining to a ligament.
Lyme disease
Chronic, recurrent disorder marked by severe arthritis, myalgias, neurologic and cardiac symptoms. It is caused by a deer tick and was first reported in Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Muscular dystrophy
Group of inherited disorders marked by progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers.
Myalgia
Muscle pain.
Myopathy
Disease of muscles.
Myositis
Inflammation of muscles.
Osteoarthritis
Inflammation of bones and joints with degeneration of cartilage in the joint space.
Plantar flexion
Motion that extends the foot downward toward the ground.
Podagra
Foot pain that occurs in the joint of the big toe in gout (gouty arthritis).
Polyarthritis
Inflammation of many joints.
Polymyalgia
Pain of many (several) muscles, especially in the shoulders and hips.
Polymyositis
Inflammation of many muscles.
Pronation
As applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm backward or down.
Pyrexia
Fever.
Rhabdomyoma
Benign tumor of striated, voluntary muscle (attached to bones).
Rhabdomyosarcoma
Malignant tumor of striated, voluntary muscle.
Rheumatoid arthritis
Chronic inflammatory and painful disease of joints; caused by autoimmune reaction against joint tissues (synovial membrane).
Rheumatologist
Medical doctor specializing in diagnosis and treatment of joint disorders.
Rotation
Circular movement around an axis (central point).
Sprain
Trauma to a joint with pain, swelling and injury to ligaments.
Strain
Muscle injury involving overstretching of muscle with pain and swelling.
Striated muscle
Composed of bands of fibers that make the muscle look striped (striated); attached to bones (voluntary or skeletal muscle).
Subluxation
Partial or incomplete dislocation of a bone from its joint.
Supination
As applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm forward or up.
Suture joint
Joint in which apposed bones are closely united.
Synovial cavity
Space between bones at a synovial joint. It contains synovial fluid.
Synovial fluid
Sticky (viscous) fluid within the joint space (synovial cavity).
Synovial joint
Freely movable joint.
Synovial membrane
Membrane lining the synovial joint cavity; produces synovial fluid.
Synovitis
Inflammation of the synovial membrane lining the synovial joint.
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, blood vessels and other organs; marked by a reddish (erythematous) facial rash that resembled the bite of a wolf (lupus).
Tendinitis
Inflammation of tendons; tendonitis.
Tendon
A type of connective tissue that binds muscles to bones.
Tenorrhaphy
Suture of a tendon.
Tenosynovitis
Inflammation of a tendon and its sheath or covering.
Visceral muscle
Muscle that lines the walls of internal organs; smooth or involuntary muscle.
Antinuclear antibody test
Detects an antibody present in serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Arthrocentesis
Surgical puncture to remove fluid from a joint.
Arthrography
X-ray imaging of a joint after injection of contrast material.
Arthroplasty
Surgical repair of a joint (with prostheses); total hip replacement and total knee replacement are examples.
Arthroscopy
Visual examination of the inside of joint with an endoscope.
Bone density test
Low energy x-rays are taken of bones in the spinal column, pelvis, and wrist to determine bone density; also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA).
Bone scan
Uptake of a radioactive substance is measured in bone.
Computed tomography
X-ray beam and a computer provide cross-sectional images of bones and soft tissue abnormalities.
Diskography
X-ray images of cervical or lumbar intervertebral disks after injection of contrast material into the interior of the disk.
Electromyography
Process of recording the strength of muscle contraction as a result of electrical stimulation.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Measures the rate at which erythrocytes settle to the bottom of a test tube.
Magnetic resonance imaging
A magnetic field and radio waves create images of soft tissues and muscles.
Muscle biopsy
Removal of muscle tissue for microscopic examination.
Rheumatoid factor test
Serum (blood minus clotting proteins and cells) is tested for the presence of an antibody found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Serum calcium
Measurement of calcium in serum.
Serum creatine kinase
Measurement of an enzyme (creatine phosphokinase) in serum.
Uric acid test
Measurement of uric acid in serum; high levels are associated with gouty arthritis.