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Bones of the skull; ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid, and temporal bones.
Crackling sound produced when ends of bone rub against each other or against roughened cartilage.
Layer of cartilage at the ends of long bones where lengthwise bone growth takes place.
Thin, delicate bone that supports the nasal cavity and forms part of the orbits of the eye.
Two small facial bones that contain tear glands and canals for the passage of tear ducts.
Surgical removal of the posterior portion of a vertebra to relieve pressure on a spinal nerve or spinal cord from a displaced intervertebral disk.
Forward curvature of the lumbar spinal column. In its extreme form it is known as "swayback."
Flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis (shaft) of the bone and the epiphyseal plate at the end of the bone.
Surgical specialty devoted to straightening, correcting and treating deformities and diseases in bones.
Large bone cell that functions to absorb and remove unwanted bony tissue during growth and healing of fractures.
Deficiency of bone tissue caused by destruction of bone tissue that exceeds the rate of bone matrix growth.
Abnormal condition of increased loss of bony tissue. Bones become thin, weak, brittle, and break easily.
Measurement of the hip bone to determine if delivery of the infant through the vagina is possible.
Area of confluence of the two pubic bones in the midline of the pelvic bone. It is a slightly movable joint separated by a disk of fibrocartilage.
Depression in the sphenoid bone at the base of the skull; location of the pituitary gland.
Abnormal condition of the spine (vertebral column) characterized by stiffness and fixation of vertebral joints.
Pole-like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull.
Club foot; foot is fixed in an abnormal position due to a congenital deformity of the ankle and foot.
Connection between the temporal bone of the skull and the mandibular bone of the jaw (lower jaw bone).
Thin plate of bone that forms part of the nasal septum, which is the wall separating the nostrils.
Inherited disorder in which the bones of the arms and legs fail to grow to normal size; achondroplastic dwarf.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Damage to nerves on the lateral (side) columns of the spinal cord and lower region of the brain, leading to progressive muscular paralysis.
Chronic inflammatory joint disease involving the backbones; marked by stiffness and eventual fusion (ankylosis) of involved joints.
Wasting away (lack of development) of a normally developed organ or tissue (especially muscle).
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Compression (by a wrist ligament) of the median nerve as it passes between the ligament and bones and tendons of the wrist.
Chronic pain and stiffness in muscles and fibrous tissue, especially in the shoulders, neck, hips and knees.
Inflammation of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the blood and uric acid crystals deposited in joints.
Chronic, recurrent disorder marked by severe arthritis, myalgias, neurologic and cardiac symptoms. It is caused by a deer tick and was first reported in Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Group of inherited disorders marked by progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers.
Chronic inflammatory and painful disease of joints; caused by autoimmune reaction against joint tissues (synovial membrane).
Composed of bands of fibers that make the muscle look striped (striated); attached to bones (voluntary or skeletal muscle).
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, blood vessels and other organs; marked by a reddish (erythematous) facial rash that resembled the bite of a wolf (lupus).
Antinuclear antibody test
Detects an antibody present in serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Surgical repair of a joint (with prostheses); total hip replacement and total knee replacement are examples.
Bone density test
Low energy x-rays are taken of bones in the spinal column, pelvis, and wrist to determine bone density; also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA).
X-ray beam and a computer provide cross-sectional images of bones and soft tissue abnormalities.
X-ray images of cervical or lumbar intervertebral disks after injection of contrast material into the interior of the disk.
Process of recording the strength of muscle contraction as a result of electrical stimulation.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Measures the rate at which erythrocytes settle to the bottom of a test tube.
Magnetic resonance imaging
A magnetic field and radio waves create images of soft tissues and muscles.
Rheumatoid factor test
Serum (blood minus clotting proteins and cells) is tested for the presence of an antibody found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
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