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Medical Terminology - Chapter 15
Rounded depression or socket in the pelvis, which joins the femur forming the hip joint.
Outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder.
Thin layer of cartilage surrounding the bones in the joint space.
Pertaining to the calcaneus (heel bone).
One of the mineral constituents of bone.
Spongy, porous bone tissue in the inner part of a bone.
Bones of the wrist.
Flexible, connective tissue that is firmer than muscle, yet softer than bone.
Seven backbones in the neck.
Pertaining to cartilage than is attached to the ribs.
Dense connective tissue strands of protein found in bone.
Broken bone occurring in the wrist at the lower end of the radius.
Broken bone that is splintered or crushed.
Hard, dense bone tissue.
Knuckle-like process at the end of a bone near the joint.
Bones of the skull; ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid, and temporal bones.
Instrument to cut the skull (cranium).
Incision of the skull.
Crackling sound produced when ends of bone rub against each other or against roughened cartilage.
Loss or removal of calcium from bones or teeth.
Shaft or mid-portion of a long bone.
Layer of cartilage at the ends of long bones where lengthwise bone growth takes place.
Each end of a long bone.
Thin, delicate bone that supports the nasal cavity and forms part of the orbits of the eye.
Malignant bone tumor occurring in children.
Bony growth arising from the surface of a bone.
Bones of the face; lacrimal, mandibular, maxillary, nasal, vomer, and zygomatic bones.
Pertaining to the femur.
Smaller of the two lower leg bones.
Pertaining to the fibula.
Narrow, slit-like opening in or between bones.
Soft spot between skull bones of an infant.
Opening or passage in bones where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave.
Shallow cavity in a bone.
Skull bone that forms the forehead and bony sockets that contain the eyes.
Minute spaces for blood vessels in compact bone.
Pertaining to the humerus (upper arm bone).
Upper arm bone.
High levels of calcium in the blood.
Pertaining to the ilium (upper and largest portion of the pelvic bone).
Upper and largest portion of the pelvic (hip) bone.
Broken bone in which one fragment is driven firmly into the other fragment.
Pertaining to the ischium (posterior portion of the pelvic bone).
Posterior (back) portion of the pelvic (hip) bone.
Abnormal condition of outward curvature (convexity) of the thoracic spine.
Two small facial bones that contain tear glands and canals for the passage of tear ducts.
One of two posterior (back) arches of a vertebra.
Surgical removal of the posterior portion of a vertebra to relieve pressure on a spinal nerve or spinal cord from a displaced intervertebral disk.
Forward curvature of the lumbar spinal column. In its extreme form it is known as "swayback."
Backbones (5) in the region of the waist (middle section below the chest).
Pertaining to the lower bones of the back (lumbar and sacral regions).
Pertaining to a malleolus.
Either of two bony enlargements (processes) on each side of an ankle.
Lower jaw bone.
Pertaining to the lower jaw bone.
Upper portion of the sternum.
Round projection (process) on the temporal bone behind the ear.
Inner section of a bone containing soft bone marrow tissue.
Surgical excision of hand bones
Flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis (shaft) of the bone and the epiphyseal plate at the end of the bone.
Formation of bone marrow.
One of two facial bones that form the nose.
Forms the posterior portion of the skull.
Pertaining to the elbow (olecranon).
Large process on the end (proximal) of the ulna; elbow.
Surgical specialty devoted to straightening, correcting and treating deformities and diseases in bones.
Process of forming bone.
Inflammation of bone.
Bone cell responsible for forming bony tissue.
Large bone cell that functions to absorb and remove unwanted bony tissue during growth and healing of fractures.
Abnormal development of bone.
Congenital bone disease in which bones are unusually brittle and fragile.
Malignant (cancerous) tumor of bone tissue.
Softening of bones with inadequate amounts of mineral (calcium) in bone; rickets.
Inflammation of bone and bone marrow.
Deficiency of bone tissue caused by destruction of bone tissue that exceeds the rate of bone matrix growth.
Abnormal condition of increased loss of bony tissue. Bones become thin, weak, brittle, and break easily.
Instrument to cut bone.
Two bones on either side of the skull.
Measurement of the hip bone to determine if delivery of the infant through the vagina is possible.
Membrane surrounding bones.
Pertaining to the fibula.
Pertaining to finger and toe bones.
Finger and toe bones.
Mineral found in bones and teeth.
Area of confluence of the two pubic bones in the midline of the pelvic bone. It is a slightly movable joint separated by a disk of fibrocartilage.
One of two bones forming the front portion of the hipbone.
Pertaining to the radius, a bone in the lower arm (thumb side of the wrist).
One of two bones in the lower arm (connecting to the wrist on the thumb side).
Red bone marrow
Soft bone tissue in spongy, cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis.
Reconnection of a bone to its normal position after a fracture.
Twelve pairs of curved, elongated bones in the chest.
Bones of the sacrum (lower back below the lumbar region).
Pertaining to the shoulder blade.
Abnormal condition of lateral (sideways) curvature of the spine.
Depression in the sphenoid bone at the base of the skull; location of the pituitary gland.
Hollow, air cavity within a bone.
Bat-shaped bone that forms part of the base of the skull.
Narrowing of the neural canal or nerve root canals in the lumbar spine.
Forward slipping or subluxation of one vertebra over another.
Abnormal condition of the spine (vertebral column) characterized by stiffness and fixation of vertebral joints.
Pole-like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull.
Pertaining to under the ribs.
Pertaining to under the patella (knee cap).
Pertaining to above the clavicle (collar bone).
Immovable, fibrous joint, as between bones of the skull.
Club foot; foot is fixed in an abnormal position due to a congenital deformity of the ankle and foot.
Removal of an anklebone.
Two bones on each side of the skull near the ear.
Connection between the temporal bone of the skull and the mandibular bone of the jaw (lower jaw bone).
Twelve backbones in the region of the chest.
Larger of the two lower leg bones.
Pertaining to the larger of the two lower leg bones.
Supporting bundles of fibers in cancellous, spongy (soft) bone.
Large process at the neck of the femur (thigh bone).
Small, rounded process on a bone.
Large, rounded process on a bone.
One of two bones in the lower arm; connects to the wrist on the little finger side.
Pertaining to the ulna.
Vertebra (pl. vertebrae)
Thin plate of bone that forms part of the nasal septum, which is the wall separating the nostrils.
Lower, narrow portion of the sternum (breastbone).
Yellow bone matter
Fatty tissue in the shaft of long bones.
Cheekbones of the face.
Muscle movement away from the midline of the body.
Inherited disorder in which the bones of the arms and legs fail to grow to normal size; achondroplastic dwarf.
Muscle movement toward the midline of the body.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Damage to nerves on the lateral (side) columns of the spinal cord and lower region of the brain, leading to progressive muscular paralysis.
Chronic inflammatory joint disease involving the backbones; marked by stiffness and eventual fusion (ankylosis) of involved joints.
Immobility (fusion) of a joint due to disease, injury, or surgical procedure.
Surgical fusion of a joint to eliminate movement.
Incision of a joint.
Cartilage surrounding bones in a joint.
A connection between bones; joint.
Wasting away (lack of development) of a normally developed organ or tissue (especially muscle).
Abnormal swelling of the joint between the big toe and a bone of the foot.
Bursa (pl. bursae)
Sac of fluid between tendons and bones near a joint.
Inflammation of a bursa surrounding a joint.
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Compression (by a wrist ligament) of the median nerve as it passes between the ligament and bones and tendons of the wrist.
Benign tumor of cartilage.
Softening of cartilage.
Displacement of a bone from its joint.
Backward (upward) bending of the foot.
Increasing the angle between two bones and straightening a limb.
Fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscle.
Removal of fascia.
Chronic pain and stiffness in muscles and fibrous tissue, especially in the shoulders, neck, hips and knees.
Decreasing the angle between two bones, as in bending a limb.
Cystic mass arising from a tendon.
Inflammation of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the blood and uric acid crystals deposited in joints.
Condition of blood in a joint.
Condition of water or fluid in a joint.
Increase in size of tissue or an organ due to increase in size of individual cells.
Increase in uric acid in the blood.
Benign tumor of smooth, involuntary muscle.
Malignant tumor of smooth muscle.
Connective tissue binding bones to other bones.
Pertaining to a ligament.
Chronic, recurrent disorder marked by severe arthritis, myalgias, neurologic and cardiac symptoms. It is caused by a deer tick and was first reported in Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Group of inherited disorders marked by progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers.
Disease of muscles.
Inflammation of muscles.
Inflammation of bones and joints with degeneration of cartilage in the joint space.
Motion that extends the foot downward toward the ground.
Foot pain that occurs in the joint of the big toe in gout (gouty arthritis).
Inflammation of many joints.
Pain of many (several) muscles, especially in the shoulders and hips.
Inflammation of many muscles.
As applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm backward or down.
Benign tumor of striated, voluntary muscle (attached to bones).
Malignant tumor of striated, voluntary muscle.
Chronic inflammatory and painful disease of joints; caused by autoimmune reaction against joint tissues (synovial membrane).
Medical doctor specializing in diagnosis and treatment of joint disorders.
Circular movement around an axis (central point).
Trauma to a joint with pain, swelling and injury to ligaments.
Muscle injury involving overstretching of muscle with pain and swelling.
Composed of bands of fibers that make the muscle look striped (striated); attached to bones (voluntary or skeletal muscle).
Partial or incomplete dislocation of a bone from its joint.
As applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm forward or up.
Joint in which apposed bones are closely united.
Space between bones at a synovial joint. It contains synovial fluid.
Sticky (viscous) fluid within the joint space (synovial cavity).
Freely movable joint.
Membrane lining the synovial joint cavity; produces synovial fluid.
Inflammation of the synovial membrane lining the synovial joint.
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, blood vessels and other organs; marked by a reddish (erythematous) facial rash that resembled the bite of a wolf (lupus).
Inflammation of tendons; tendonitis.
A type of connective tissue that binds muscles to bones.
Suture of a tendon.
Inflammation of a tendon and its sheath or covering.
Muscle that lines the walls of internal organs; smooth or involuntary muscle.
Antinuclear antibody test
Detects an antibody present in serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Surgical puncture to remove fluid from a joint.
X-ray imaging of a joint after injection of contrast material.
Surgical repair of a joint (with prostheses); total hip replacement and total knee replacement are examples.
Visual examination of the inside of joint with an endoscope.
Bone density test
Low energy x-rays are taken of bones in the spinal column, pelvis, and wrist to determine bone density; also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA).
Uptake of a radioactive substance is measured in bone.
X-ray beam and a computer provide cross-sectional images of bones and soft tissue abnormalities.
X-ray images of cervical or lumbar intervertebral disks after injection of contrast material into the interior of the disk.
Process of recording the strength of muscle contraction as a result of electrical stimulation.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Measures the rate at which erythrocytes settle to the bottom of a test tube.
Magnetic resonance imaging
A magnetic field and radio waves create images of soft tissues and muscles.
Removal of muscle tissue for microscopic examination.
Rheumatoid factor test
Serum (blood minus clotting proteins and cells) is tested for the presence of an antibody found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Measurement of calcium in serum.
Serum creatine kinase
Measurement of an enzyme (creatine phosphokinase) in serum.
Uric acid test
Measurement of uric acid in serum; high levels are associated with gouty arthritis.